APA 7th Referencing: Reports & Grey Literature

What is grey literature?

Grey literature is defined by GreyNet International (2019) as "multiple document types produced on all levels of government, academics, business, and organization in electronic and print formats not controlled by commercial publishing i.e. where publishing is not the primary activity of the producing body" ("GreyNet's business report" section, para. 2).

Grey literature includes a variety of different reports, including government, technical and research reports, as well as press releases, codes of ethics, grants, and policy and issues briefs (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 329).

Related links within this guide

Basic format to reference a report

The basics of a reference list entry for a report

  • Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials. The Author may be a government or corporate entity.
  • Year
  • Title of report (In italics. Include the report number in brackets where relevant)
  • Publisher information (if the author and the publisher are the same, omit the publisher)
  • DOI or URL
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Example: 

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Childhood education and care (No. 4402.0). https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/                       4402.0Main+Features1June%202017?OpenDocument

Referencing reports & grey literature: Examples

 

Material Type In-Text Example Reference List Example

Report: Organisation as Author

…population growth (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2017).

According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2017) …

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Childhood education and care (No. 4402.0). https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/
4402.0Main+Features1June%202017?OpenDocument

Report: Organisation as Author

Use of abbreviations

…laws relating to children (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2018).

When citing from a report more than once, in the first citation provide the full name of the organisation, along with the abbreviation in [square brackets], as above.

In subsequent citations use the abbreviated organisational title. e.g.​

…administered by the States and Territories (AIHW, 2018).

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2018). Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia 2018. https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/d1a8d479-a39a-48c1-bbe2-4b27c7a321e0/aihw-fdv-02.pdf.aspx?inline=true

Provide the full name of the organisation in the reference list.

Note: if the URL 'jumps' down a line, leave it. Do not 'break' URLs by hitting 'Enter' at the end of the line.

Report: Government Agency or other Organisation

…listen to women and girls from these communities (Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet [PM&C], 2017). 

Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. (2017). Understanding the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women and girls: A joint project with the Australian Human Rights CommissionAustralian Government. https://pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/factsheet-supporting-indigenous-women-girls.pdf

 

For Government Departments, provide the specific name of the department as the Author, and the 'parent' agency as the publisher. In this example the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet is a specific department of the Australian Government.

Titles of reports are in italics. Capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns.

Report: Individual Authors at a Government Agency or other Organisation

Ambiel et al. (2019) found "fruits showed greater losses than vegetables" in most states and territories (p.58).

OR

"Fruits showed greater losses than vegetables" in most states and territories (Ambiel et al., 2019, p. 58).

Ambiel, C., Adell, A., Sanguansri, P., Krause, D., Gamage, T., Garcia-Flores, R., & Juliano, P.  (2019). Mapping Australian fruit and vegetable losses pre-retail. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. https://doi.org/10.25919/5d28d8ba0fad5
Report by a task force, working group or other group

The Mental Health Integration Taskforce (2019) noted that "services are provided by dedicated, hard-working and skilled staff" (p. 26).

OR 

"Services are provided by dedicated, hard-working and skilled staff" (Mental Health Integration Taskforce, 2019, p. 26).

Mental Health Integration Taskforce. (2019). Better integration of mental health services in Southern Tasmania: Mental Health Integration Taskforce report and recommendations. Mental Health, Alcohol and Drug Directorate, Department of Health, Tasmanian Government. https://www.dhhs.tas.gov.au/news/2019/mental_health_integration_taskforce_report

Capitalise the name of the Taskforce wherever it appears, as it is a proper noun.

For Government Departments, provide the specific name of the department as the Author, and the 'parent' agencies (in order) as the publisher.

Annual Report

 

(Western Health, 2019)

Western Health. (2019). 2018-19 annual report. http://www.westernhealth.org.au/AboutUs/CorporatePublications/Documents/ AnnualReport/WH_Annual_Report_%202018-19.pdf

Where the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher.

Press or Media Release

(Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation [CSIRO], 2007)

(Prime Minister of Australia, 2010)

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. (2007, March 20). Cyclone science shows rainforest impacts and recovery [Press release]. http://www.csiro.au/news/ps2wj.html

 

Prime Minister of Australia. (2010, July 7). Gillard Government to boost resources to international border patrols [Press release]. AGPS.