APA Referencing: Multi-media materials

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Basic format to reference multi-media materials

The basics of a reference list entry for a commercially released film:

  • Primary contributor or contributors with their contribution identified in round brackets.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Title (in italics).
  • Description of medium [in square brackets].
  • Place of publication.
  • Publisher.
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Example: Thornton, W. (Director). (2017). Sweet country [Motion picture]. Bondi Beach, NSW: Bunya Productions.

Please note:

  • Multi-Media materials include motion pictures, documentaries, radio shows, TV shows, music tracks, and static objects such as maps, artworks or photographs.
  • Some of the descriptions of medium are: [Motion Picture], [CD], [DVD], [Record], [Video], [TV programme], [Radio programme], [Painting], [Photograph], [Microform] and [Demographic map].

Referencing multi-media materials: Examples

Material Type In-Text Example Reference List Example
Online or Streaming Video ... explores what it means to be highly sensitive (Harper, Harper, & Aron, 2015).

Harper, W. (Producer & Director), Harper, D. S. (Producer), & Aron, E. (Writer). (2015). Sensitive: The untold story [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.kanopystreaming.com

DVD The film Pawno, directed by Paul Ireland and written by Damian Hill (2016) celebrates multicultural Footscray.

Ireland, P. (Director), & Hill, D. (Writer). (2016). Pawno [DVD]. Melbourne, VIC: Toothless Pictures.

Episode from a Radio Show ...in an interview with experts exploring how protest has changed, particularly in light of social media (Malcolm, 2018).

Malcolm, L. (Presenter). (2018, May 13). Ready for revolution - the psychology of protest [Radio series episode]. In D. Dean (Producer), All in the Mind. Sydney, NSW: ABC Radio National.

TV Show from a series … (Brockie, 2018).

Brockie, J. (Presenter). (2018, June 12). Sizing up steroids [Television series episode]. In J. Noyce (Producer) & M. Nguyen-Emmett (Associate Producer), Insight. Sydney, NSW: SBS Television.

Sound Recording


(Bolton, 1975)


Love Monster (Shark, 2018) is the alt-rock debut from this Australian singer-songwriter.


Bolton, G. C. (Speaker). (1975). Towards an Australian environmental history [Cassette recording]. Perth, WA: Media Services, Murdoch University.


Shark, A. (2018). Love Monster [CD]. Australia: Wonderlick Recording Company.

Music Track from an Album …exploring non-Western tuning intervals (King Gizzard & the Lizard Wizard, 2017, track 5).

King Gizzard & the Lizard Wizard. (2017). Billabong valley. On Flying microtonal banana [CD]. Melbourne, VIC: Flightless.

Microform (French, 1986)

French, L. A. (1986). Cognitive consequences of education: transfer of training in the elderly (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois) [Microform]. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International.

Image: for example a painting or photograph 

(Duveneck, 1872)


(Duveneck, 1872)


(Caire, 1880)

Duveneck, F. (Artist). (1872). Whistling boy [Painting]. Cincinnati, OH: Cincinnati Art Museum.

Duveneck, F. (Artist). (1872). Whistling boy [Image of painting]. Cincinnati, OH: Cincinnati Art Museum. Retrieved from http://www.artstor.org

Caire, N. J. (Photographer). (1880). Western entrance to Melbourne International Exhibition [Glass slide]. (Accession no. H3860). Melbourne, VIC: State Library of Victoria.

Image: Creative Commons

In-text: Captioning the reproduced image:

From “Dementia,” by G.  Altmann, n.d. (https://pixabay.com/en/dementia-alzheimer-s-dependent-3051832). CC0 1.0.

The above citation is placed within the caption under the reproduced image. The figure number and description of the image precede the citation. The Creative Commons license information is placed at the end of citation within the caption.

In-text: Referring to (but not reproducing) the image:

…visual representation of the experience of dementia (Altmann, n.d.).

Altmann, G. (n.d.). Dementia [photograph]. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/dementia-alzheimer-s-dependent-3051832

Image: From a Library database

In-text: Captioning the reproduced image:

Include a caption directly below the figure

Figure 1 Structure of blood vessels. From A.M. Gilroy, B.R. Macpherson, and L.M. Ross, 2008, Atlas of Anatomy. All rights reserved. © Thieme 2008. www.thieme.com

In text:  Referring to the reproduced image:

When citing a figure from your paper refer to the figure number

As shown in Figure 1 ……(Gilroy et al., 2008)

Figure 1 illustrates ….. (Gilroy et al., 2008)

 Gilroy et al. (2008) Atlas of anatomy. Retrieved from www.thieme.com

Map (Lewis County Geographic Information Services, 2002)

Lewis County Geographic Information Services (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic map]. Retrieved from http://www.co.lewis.wa.us/publicworks/maps/Demographics/census-pop-dens_2000.pdf