APA Referencing: Patents & standards

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Basic format to reference patents

The basics of a reference list entry for a patent:

  • Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Patent number (in italics).
  • Place of publication.
  • Publisher.
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Example:

Bryant, S.J. (1998). European Patent No. EP GB2322334. Munich, Germany: European Patent Office.

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Further information:

  • For the in-text citation give the patent number and the issue date (not the application date).
  • In the reference list entry, include the inventor(s) to whom the patent is issued and the official source from which the patent information can be retrieved.

Referencing patents: Examples

Material Type In-Text Example Reference List Example
Patent (U.S. Patent No. 6,606,963, 2003)

Wynne, B. M. (2003). U.S. Patent No. 6,606,963. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

The title of the patent is not included.

Patent: Retrieved from a Database (European Patent No. EP 2178546 (A1), 2010) Oldani, M. D. (2010). European Patent No. EP 2178546 (A1). Retrieved from Scopus.

 

Basic format to reference standards

The basics of a reference list entry for a standard:

  • Author.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Standard title (in italics).
  • Standard number.
  • Place of publication.
  • Publisher.
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Example:

Standards Australia. (1994). Information processing - text and office systems - office document architecture (ODA) and interchange format: part 10: formal specifications (AS/NZS 3951.10:1994). Homebush, NSW: Author.

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Referencing standards: Examples

Material Type In-Text Example Reference List Example
Standard: Retrieved from a Database (Standards Australia, 2008)

Standards Australia. (2008). Personal flotation devices - General requirements (AS 4758.1-2008). Retrieved from Australian Standards Online. 

Standard: Print              (Standards Australia, 1994)                                         

Standards Australia. (1994). Information processing - text and office systems - office document architecture (ODA) and interchange format: part 10: formal specifications (AS 3951.10:1994). Homebush, NSW: Author.