APA Referencing: Patents & standards

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Basic format to reference patents

The basics of a reference list entry for a patent retrieved online:

  • Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Patent number (in italics).
  • Retrieved from URL.
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Example:

Bevitt, A. J. (2018). Australian Patent No. AU 2018100960. Retrieved from http://pericles.ipaustralia.gov.au/ols/auspat/applicationDetails.do? applicationNo=2018100960

Further information:

  • For the in-text citation give the patent number and the issue date (not the application date).
  • In the reference list entry, include the inventor(s) to whom the patent is issued and the official source from which the patent information can be retrieved.

Referencing patents: Examples

Material Type In-Text Example Reference List Example
Patent: Print (Australian Patent No. AU 2018204249, 2018)

Irwin, M. D., Lovelace, J., & Mielczarek, K. (2018). Australian Patent No. AU 2018204249. Canberra, ACT: IP Australia.

The title of the patent is not included.

Patent: Online

(Australian)

(Australian Patent No. AU 2018100960, 2018)

Bevitt, A. J. (2018). Australian Patent No. AU 2018100960. Retrieved from http://pericles.ipaustralia.gov.au/ols/auspat/applicationDetails.do? applicationNo=2018100960

Patent: Online

(International)

(European Patent No. EP 3331317, 2018)

Botura, G. C., Wilson, T. M., & Hartzler, B. (2018). European Patent No. EP3331317. Retrieved from https://www.epo.org/application?number=EP17205218

 

Basic format to reference standards

The basics of a reference list entry for a standard retrieved online:

  • Author.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Standard title (in italics).
  • Standard number (in round brackets).
  • Retrieved from the homepage URL of the publisher.
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Example:

Standards Australia, & Standards New Zealand. (2018). Interior and workspace lighting part 2.5: Hospital and medical tasks (AS/NZS 1680.2.5-2018). Retrieved from https://www.saiglobal.com/.

Referencing standards: Examples

Material Type In-Text Example Reference List Example
Standard: Retrieved from a Database (Standards Australia & Standards New Zealand, 2018)

Standards Australia, & Standards New Zealand. (2018). Interior and workspace lighting part 2.5: Hospital and medical tasks (AS/NZS 1680.2.5-2018). Retrieved from https://www.saiglobal.com/

Standard: Print (Standards Australia, 2013)                                

Standards Australia. (2013). Gas installations. Part 1, general installations (AS/NZS 5601.1:2013). Sydney, NSW: Author.