APA Referencing: Sample APA reference list

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What is a reference list in APA

Your Reference List should be located on a separate page at the end of your assignment titled: References. It should include the full details of all your in-text references (excluding personal communications), arranged alphabetically A-Z by author surname, see Sample Reference List below. The terms ‘Bibliography’ and ‘Reference List’ are often used interchangeably, however a reference list only includes items you have referenced in your assignment whereas, a bibliography also includes items used to prepare your assignment (check with your lecturer or tutor which they require). Other points to note:

  • List works with no author under the first significant word of the title.
  • Indent second and subsequent lines of each entry (5-7 spaces).
  • Use double spacing.
  • Use the centred heading in bold: 'References'.

APA sample reference list


Allen, D. (2004). Dealing with your meeting notes. Retrieved from http://www.effectivemeetings.com/meetingbasics/

Allen, M. C., & Black, R. (1995). The future of higher education in Australia. Journal of Higher Education, 15(2), 16-25.

Ashwin, P. (Ed.). (2006). Changing higher education: The development of learning and teaching. London, England: Routledge. 

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). Childhood education and care (No. 4402.0). Canberra, ACT: Author. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au

Barua, S. (2010). Drought assessment and forecasting using a nonlinear aggregated drought index (Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia). Retrieved from http://vuir.vu.edu.au/1598

BHP Billiton. (2011). BHP Billiton Exploration and Development Report for the year ended 30 June 2011. Retrieved from http://www.bhpbilliton.com/home/investors/reports/Pages/default.aspx

Boud, D. (2006). Aren't we all learner-centred now?: The bittersweet flavour of success. In P. Ashwin (Ed.), Changing higher education: The development of learning and teaching (pp. 19–32). London, England: Routledge. 

Brown, W. (Script Writer), & Brodie, K. (Director). (2007, June 4). From Lake Baikal to the halfway mark, Yekaterinburg. [Podcast television programme]. In P. George (Producer), Peking to Paris. Sydney, NSW: ABC Television. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/tv/pekingtoparis/podcast

Bruck, D. (2009). APP1016: Foundations of Psychological Research, week 6 notes [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://library.vu.edu.au/search/r?SEARCH=app1016

Caire, N. J. (Photographer). (1880). Western entrance to Melbourne International Exhibition [Glass slide]. (Accession no. H3860). Melbourne, VIC: State Library of Victoria.

Department of Health and Family Services. (2007). Youth suicide in Australia: The National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/mentalhealth/publishing.nsf/Content/national-suicide-prevention-strategy-1

El-Shamy, S. (2004). How to design and deliver training for the new and emerging generations. San Francisco, CA: Wiley. 

Frank, L. K. (1935, February 4). [Letter to Robert M. Ogden]. Rockefeller Archive Centre (GEB series 1.3, Box 371, Folder 3877), Tarrytown, NY.

Fuller, C. F. (2011). Sociology, gender and educational aspirations: Girls and their ambitions. Albany, NY: Continuum International.

Hill, C. E. (Ed.). (2001). The helping skills: The empirical foundation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10412-000

Kift, S., & Nelson, K. (2005). Beyond curriculum reform: Embedding the transition experience. In A. Brew & C. Asmar (Eds.), HERDSA 2005 Conference: Higher Education in a Changing World: Research and Development in Higher Education. (pp. 225-235). Sydney, NSW: Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia. Retrieved from http://conference.herdsa.org.au/2005/pdf/refereed/paper_294.pdf

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36. doi:10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10

Leggat, I. K., Hutchings, D., Poliness, S., Nemeth, T., West, A., Ngo, A., . . . Mascilongo, J. (2009). How to maximise the use of libraries in educational institutions. St Albans, VIC: Victoria University Press. 

Masters, C. (Presenter & Writer), & Johnson, P. (Director). (2006, March 27). Big fish, little fish [Television series episode]. In T. G. Alford (Executive Producer), Four Corners. Sydney, NSW: ABC Television.

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/the_unfortunate_prerequisities.php 

Moore, M. (Writer & Director). (2003). Bowling for Columbine. [DVD]. Melbourne, VIC: Umbrella Entertaiment.

Moss, S. (Presenter), & Selig, S. (Presenter). (2010). Conversations with ALMA: Healthy eating and maintaining motivation [Audio podcast]. Fairlight, NSW: Australian Lifestyle Medicine Association. Retrieved from http://www.lifestylemedicine.com.au/health-professionals/podcast.htm

The pain of being a caffeine freak. (2001, October 6). New Scientist, 172(2311), 27.

Prayag, I. L., & Ramjee, R. (2009) The impact of Newcastle disease control on smallholder poultry production in Mauritius. In R. G. Alsers, P. B. Spadbrow, & M. P. Young (Eds.), Village chickens, poverty alleviation and the sustainable control of Newcastle disease: Proceedings of an international conference held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 5-7 October 2005 (pp. 132-134). Canberra, ACT: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.

Rosen, L . (2011). The culture of Islam: Changing aspects of contemporary Muslim life. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Retrieved from http://www.eblib.com

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38–48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap

Smith, B. (2011, June 24). Brain study confirms stress of life in the city. The Age, p.14. Retrieved from Factiva.

Standards Australia. (2008). Personal flotation devices - General requirements (AS 4758.1-2008). Retrieved from Australian Standards Online.

Weinberg, R. S., & Gould, D. (2011). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology (6th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Wilson, J. (2009, September 26). In defence of the superficial. The AgeA2, p. 23.