Harvard Referencing: Multi-media materials

Related links within this guide

Basic format to reference multi-media materials

The basics of a Reference List entry for a commercially released CD:

  • Primary contributor or contributors. The surname is followed by first initials.
  • Year.
  • Title of track (in single inverted commas).
  • Title of work (in italics).
  • Description of format.
  • Publisher.
  • Place of recording.

Yunupingu, GG 2011, 'Gopuru', on Rrakala, CD, Skinnyfish, Sydney.


  • For multi-media material there may be no author, in which case the title and date can be provided in the in-text reference.
  • Format details should be included.
  • Details of director, producer and any other special credits can be noted after the place of publication. Place a full stop after the place of publication, see examples below.
  • If the source is electronic, details of the online location and date of access should be included in your Reference List.

Referencing multi-media materials: Examples

Material Type In-text example Reference List example

Online Video 

(Brooklyn, 2015)



(Victoria University Library 2017)

Brooklyn 2015, online video, Transmission Films, viewed 14 February 2017,
< https://vu.kanopystreaming.com/video/brooklyn>. 


Victoria University Library 2017, Ebooks: how to download an EBook Central e-book, online video, viewed 16 February 2017, <https://vimeo.com/vicunilibrary/ebookcentral>.

Online Audio  (Coldplay 2008) Coldplay 2008, Viva la vida, online audio, accessed 14 February 2017, <https://open.spotify.com/track/1mea3bSkSGXuIRvnydlB5b>.
Twitter post ... and Tony Abbott (2014) shared on Twitter: 'A momentous, historic day - at the signing of our Free Trade Agreement with China'.   Abbott, T 2014, 'A momentous, historic day', TonyAbbottMHR, Twitter, 16 June, viewed 23 June 2014, <https://twitter.com/tonyabbottmhr>.  
Facebook post Victoria University (2014) posted an announcement in relation to hosting the Southern Uni Games in 2016. Victoria University 2014, 'The news is out - we're hosting the Southern Uni Games in 2016', Victoria University, Melbourne Australia, Facebook, 18 June, viewed 23 June 2014, <https://www.facebook.com/victoria.university>.
Blog Post (Wilton 2010) Wilton, P 2010, ‘Proteins prove their metal’, Oxford Science Blog, weblog post, 7 July, viewed 10 August 2011, <http://www.ox.ac.uk/media/science_blog/100707.html>.
Television Program (Grasswell 2011) Grasswell, H (producer) 2011, The Gavin Larkin story - Australian Story, television broadcast, Australian Broadcasting Service, 12 September, viewed 17 October 2011, <http://0-search.informit.com.au.library.vu.edu.au/documentSummary;dn=TEX20113700853;res=TVNEWS>.
Audio Podcast (Duncan 2011) Duncan, M 2011, 'Abdication', The History of Rome, podcast, 6 March, accessed 17 October 2011, <http://thehistoryofrome.typepad.com/the_history_of_rome/2011/03/129-abdication.html>.
Video Podcast

...in an ABC Science podcast Star Stuff (Gary 2010)


Gary, S 2010, 'Solar max sends journos spinning', Star Stuff, podcast, ABC Science, Sydney, NSW, 1 September, accessed 31 August 2011, <http://www.abc.net.au/science/starstuff/>.


(Bowling for Columbine 2003)

Bowling for Columbine 2003, DVD, Umbrella Entertainment, Melbourne, Vic. Written and directed by Michael Moore.

Music Track from an Album

(Yunupingu 2011)

Yunupingu, GG 2011, 'Gopuru', on Rrakala, CD, Skinnyfish, Sydney.

Note that the title track is in single quotation marks and the album title is in italics.