Harvard Referencing: Patents & standards

Related links within this guide

Basic formats to reference patents & standards

The basics of a Reference List entry for a patent:

  • Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials.
  • Year.
  • Patent title (in italics).
  • Patent number.

Example:

Wynne, BM 2003, Shark repellent system, US 6606963.

                 

  • For patents the title may be more of a descriptive title rather than a formal title.
  • Identifying elements such as patent/standard numbers should be included.
  • If no individual author is available, a corporate author can be used in the in-text reference.

The basics of a Reference List entry for a standard:

  • Author.
  • Year.
  • Standard title (in italics).
  • Standard number.
  • Publisher.
  • Place of publication.

Example:

Standards Australia 1994, Information processing - text and office systems - office document architecture (ODA) and interchange format: part 10: formal specifications, AS/NZS 3951.10:1994, Standards Australia, NSW.

Referencing patents & standards: Examples

Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Patent (print) (Wynne 2003)

Wynne, BM 2003, Shark repellent system, US 6606963.

Patent: Retrieved from a Database

(Oldani 2010)

Oldani, MD 2010, Herbal formulations for controlling blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes, European Patent EP 2178546 (A1), viewed 17 October 2011, retrieved from Scopus.

Standard: Retrieved from a Database (Standards Australia 2008) Standards Australia 2008, Personal floatation devices - General requirements, AS 4758.1-2008, viewed 17 October 2011, retrieved from Australian Standards Online. 
Standard (print) (Standards Australia/New Zealand Standard 1994) Standards Australia 1994, Information processing - text and office systems - office document architecture (ODA) and interchange format: part 10: formal specifications, AS/NZS 3951.10:1994, Standards Australia, NSW.

 

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