Harvard Referencing: Sample In-Text References

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What is an in-text reference in Harvard?

In-text references or citations are used to acknowledge the work or ideas of others. They are placed next to the text that you have paraphrased or quoted, enabling the reader to differentiate between your writing and other people’s work.  The full details of your in-text references must be included in a reference list. 

When presenting ideas or information from a source, include the author’s surname and date of publication in brackets within the text of your writing, e.g. These skills need to be developed over time (Veit & Gould  2010). 

Where you refer to the author’s name in the body of the text, include the date of publication in brackets, e.g. 
Young, Rudin-Brown and Lenne (2010) suggest  increased penalties and driver education as  two possible strategies. 

When quoting directly from the source include the page number if available and place quotation marks around the quote, e.g. 
The World Health Organisation (2011, p. 8) defines driver distraction ‘as when some kind of triggering event external to the driver results in the driver shifting attention away from the driving task’.

Sample in-text references: Examples

Example 1:

Students commencing university often lack the writing, reading and research skills necessary to complete assessment tasks. These skills need to be developed over time (Veit & Gould  2010).  Learning the skills of note-taking and paraphrasing are vital if students are to avoid plagiarism in their writing. Veit and Gould (2010, p. 158) emphasise the importance of ‘using your own words and your own style’ when paraphrasing. There are many different strategies available to students regarding note-taking and paraphrasing. Veit and Gould (2010) suggest a useful strategy to avoid unintentional plagiarism is to rewrite important information in your own words at the time of reading. Students should remember to always record the full details of sources in their notes. Sources can then be accurately acknowledged in the text and in the list of works cited at the end of their paper.



Example 2:

Young drivers are at a greater risk of being injured or killed on our roads than any other demographic (VicRoads 2014).  There are a number of safety issues for young drivers, including the issue of distraction. The World Health Organisation (2011, p. 8) defines driver distraction ‘ as when some kind of triggering event external to the driver results in the driver shifting attention away from the driving task’. The ringing of a telephone, responding to a text message or a telephone alert can all cause distractions while driving. Young drivers are more likely to be involved in an accident as a result of a distraction within the vehicle as they do not have the experience to know how to respond (World Health Organisation 2011). Opinions differ regarding the solution to the problem of mobile phone use while driving by young people. Young, Rudin-Brown and Lenne (2010) suggest  increased penalties and driver education as  two possible strategies.  In the not too distant future technology may provide a solution to the problem.