IEEE Referencing: Sample in-text reference

Technical Writing

For advice on writing the technical documentation, refer to the IEEE Editorial Style Manual itself. Also useful could be the Writing for Science and Engineering: Papers, Presentations and Reports book by Heather Silyn-Roberts, 2nd ed. as it explains in plain English the steps to writing abstracts, theses, journal papers, funding bids, literature reviews, and more. Another useful source aimed at scientists is Writing for Science by Robert Goldbort, who discusses how best to approach various writing tasks as well as how to deal with the everyday complexities that may get in the way of ideal practice. Goldbort underscores the importance of an ethical approach to science and scientific communication.

Sample text with in-text references

In IEEE citations, the references should be numbered and appear in the order of appearance in the text. For example, provided is a sample text as shown below:


Some vibration and noise sources give rise to annoyance to people and every so often damage to property. Vibration in either digital or analogue panel meters can cause their malfunction or difficulty in reading the meters [1]. Hence one of the significant goals of vibration study is to monitor, analyse and reduce vibrations through proper design of machines and their mountings [2], [3].

According to [4], the complexity of mechanical and electrical systems and applications of vibratory equipment in them have increased markedly in recent years. For example, vibration is put to work in vibrating power tools like jackhammers and chainsaws, vibratory feeders and conveyors, hoppers, sieves, electric toothbrushes, dentist’s drills, mobile phones, including the fitness machines in recent times [5].  It has been emphasised in [6] that an important consideration in designing of electronic equipment is that it must work with a high degree of reliability in severe vibration and shock environments. Ozansoy [7] has further argued that the process of designing the electronic equipment also needs to account for the severe thermal environments in which the equipment will be operating.



[1]     M. C. Potter and R. Mackiewicz, Mechanical Vibration and Shock Analysis, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2015, pp. 17–19.

[2]     J. D. Bellamy, Introduction to Machine Vibration. New York: Wiley, 2010.

[3]     C. Jacks, Machinery Vibration and Rotordynamics. New York: Penguin Random House, 2013, pp. 175–225.

[4]     A. Brandon, “Vibration analysis resolves vibration equipment problems,” in Fundamental and Advanced Vibration Analysis. New York: Wiley, 2014, ch. 7, pp. 129–134.

[5]     Engineers Australia (2014, June). Vibration Analysis: Design and Troubleshooting, Engineers Australia, Canberra. Accessed on: Feb. 1, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[6]     H Jingsong, G. S. Kino, and Q. H. Zhang, "Vibration analysis for electronic equipment," Journal of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 179-199, Feb. 2014. Accessed on: Feb, 2, 2017. [Online]. Available: Academic Search Premier

[7]     C. R. Ozansoy, "Vibration and Fatigue Analysis of Electronic Assemblies.", Ph.D. dissertation, College of Eng. and Sc., Victoria Univ., Melb., Vic., 2012.