Harvard Referencing: Multi-media materials

Basic format to reference multi-media materials

The basics of a Reference List entry for a commercially released CD:

  • Primary contributor or contributors. The surname is followed by first initials.
  • Year.
  • Title of track (in single inverted commas).
  • Title of work (in italics).
  • Description of format.
  • Publisher.
  • Place of recording.


Lamar, K & SZA 2018, ‘All the stars’, on Black Panther, Album, Top Dawg, USA.


  • For multi-media material there may be no author, in which case the title and date can be provided in the in-text reference.
  • Format details should be included.
  • Details of director, producer and any other special credits can be noted after the place of publication. Place a full stop after the place of publication, see examples below.
  • If the source is electronic, details of the online location and date of access should be included in your Reference List.

Referencing multi-media materials: Examples

Material Type In-text example Reference List example

Online Video 

(Loving Vincent 2017)

(Victoria University Library 2017)



(Singh Sidhu 2018)

Loving Vincent 2017, online video, Madmen Entertainment, viewed 1 June 2018, <https://vu.kanopy.com/video/loving-vincent-0>.

Victoria University Library 2017, Ebooks: how to download an EBook Central e-book, online video, viewed 16 February 2017, <https://vimeo.com/vicunilibrary/ebookcentral>.


Singh Sidhu, B 2018, Are we running out of clean water, online video, YouTube, viewed 13 February, <https://youtu.be/OCzYdNSJF-k>.

Online Audio 

(Sheeran 2018)

Sheeran, E 2018, Dive, online audio, accessed 29 May 2018, <https://open.spotify.com/track/51ChrwmUPDJvedPQnIU8Ls?si=SiT6FezxSFKqDbXXg4fdOA>.

Twitter post

The Fair Work Ombudsman (2018) posted ‘Did you know superannuation contributions need to be listed on pay slips? It's a common error we see’. 

Fair Work Ombudsman 2018, ‘Did you know superannuation contributions need to be listed on pay slips? It’s a common error we see’, Fairwork_gov_au, Twitter, 21 May, viewed 23 May 2018, <https://twitter.com/fairwork_gov_au/status/998687634380787712>.

Facebook post

‘How's our First Year Model going? For starters, Block 2's pass rate was 85%, following on from Block 1's 90%’ (Victoria University 2018).

Victoria University 2018, 'Students celebrate with 85% pass rates thanks to VU’s First Year Model', Victoria University, Melbourne Australia, Facebook, 23 May, viewed 23 May 2018, <https://www.facebook.com/victoria.university>.


Blog Post

(Ecker 2018)

Ecker, M 2018, ‘A very different environment for early toolmakers in South Africa’, Oxford Science Blog, weblog post, 21 May, viewed 23 May 2018, <http://www.ox.ac.uk/news/science-blog/very-different-environment-early-toolmakers-south-africa>.

Television Program


(When the war is over 2018)



When the war is over 2018, television program, Australian Story, ABC TV, Sydney, 9 April.

Television Program

(Retrieved online)

(Quilty et al. 2018)




List only the first contributor followed by et al.

Quilty, B, Bainbridge, M, Bainbridge, B, Oddie, J, Lambie, J & Bainbridge, T 2018, When the war is over: the challenges that Mick had was mortal loss, friends that had been killed around him - Australian Story, television broadcast, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 9 April, viewed 23 May 2018, <https://search-informit-com-au.wallaby.vu.edu.au:4433/documentSummary;dn=TSM201804090107;res=TVNEWS>.

Provide the names of all contributors in the reference list.

Audio Podcast

(Foot 2019)

Foot, G 2019, ‘Health drinks: turmeric', The best thing since sliced bread?, podcast, 20 February, accessed 25 February 2019, <https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p071h3tx>.

Video Podcast

(Cordon 2017)


Cordon, J 2017, ‘Bruno Mars Carpool Karaoke’, The late late show with James Cordon, accessed 23 May 2018, <https://youtu.be/AFxCO_DyzYM>. 



(Aida’s secrets 2017)

Aida’s secrets 2017, DVD, Music Box Films, Chicago, directed by Alon Schwarz & Shaul Schwarz.

Music Track from an Album

(Lamar & SZA 2018)

Lamar, K & SZA 2018, ‘All the stars’, on Black Panther: the album, sound recording, Top Dawg, USA.

Note that the title track is in single quotation marks and the album title is in italics.