On this page you will find links to websites, book chapters and journal articles for further reading on the Apply and Assess steps of EBP.
Once the health professional has acquired the literature to answer the clinical question and appraised the quality of the literature, they are ready to apply the evidence to their individual patient or practice. Health professionals applying evidence to their local setting need to determine the benefit to the individual patient or patients and the appropriateness to their specific context before deciding on a course of action.
The interactive module, 'Apply the evidence' from the University of Western Australia below examines the important questions that need to be considered by clinicians when considering whether the evidence can be applied to a particular patient.
University Of Western Australia.(2020). Apply the evidence In Answering clinical questions. https://www.meddent.uwa.edu.au/teaching/acq
Listed below are book chapters and journal articles for further reading on the Apply step in the EBP process. Many of the readings below address the challenges around implementing change in organisations.
Greenhalgh, T. (2019). Applying evidence with patients. In T. Greenhalgh, How to read a paper: The basics of evidence-based medicine and healthcare (6th ed.). Wiley-Blackwell.
Guyatt. G.H., Haynes, R., Jaeschke, R.Z, et al. (2000). Users' guides to the medical literature: XXV. Evidence-based medicine: Principles for applying the Users' Guides to patient care. JAMA, 284, 290-1296. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.284.10.1290.
McCluskey, A. (2013). Implementing evidence into practice. In T. S. Hoffmann, S. Bennett & C. B. Del Mar (Eds.). Evidence-based practice across the health professions (2nd ed.). Elsevier Australia. pp.370-390
Pearson, A. Field, J. Jordan, Z. (2006). Evidence utilisation: Implementing evidence based guidelines. In Evidence-Based clinical practice in nursing and health care: Assimilating research, experience and expertise. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 118- 136.
Rubin, A. (2008). Monitoring client progress. In Practitioner's guide to using research for evidence-based practice. (pp.253- 273). John Wiley & Sons
The final step in the EBP process is for practitioners to reflect on the effectiveness of the EBP process in terms of patient outcomes as well as changes to practitioner behavior or attitudes and organisational changes (Hakkennes & Green, 2006).
Hakkennes, S. & Green, S. (2006). Measures for assessing practice change in medical practioners. Implementation Science 1 (29). https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-1-29
Dr Kylie Porritt, JBI's Implementation Science Program Manager, outlines what we need to 'get right' for successful evidence implementation.