APA 7th Referencing: Sound & video

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On this guide audiovisual materials include films & documentaries, online streaming videos (such as YouTube videos), podcasts, TV shows & episodes, music albums & tracks.

Basic format to reference audiovisual materials

The basics of a reference list entry for a YouTube video:

  • Primary contributor or contributors with their contribution identified in round brackets (e.g. the Director of a film; the YouTube uploader).
  • Year (in round brackets). (Provide the most exact date available).
  • Title (in italics).
  • Description of work [in square brackets].
  • Publisher (e.g. the production company, or streaming platform).
  • URL (where relevant).
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.


Autism Spectrum Australia. (2022, August 22). Meet Seham. Speech pathologist at Aspect Macarthur School [Video]. YouTube.

Image of a reference example for a YouTube video. Text for example directly above this image

Please note:

  • Sound & Video materials include films & documentaries, online streaming videos (such as YouTube videos), podcasts, TV shows & episodes, music albums & tracks.
  • Some of the descriptions of format are: [Film], [Video], [TV series] or [TV series episode], [Webinar], [Album], [Song], [Audio podcast] or [Video podcast]
Material Type In-Text Example Reference List Example

The film Pawno, directed by Paul Ireland and written by Damian Hill (2016) celebrates multicultural Footscray.

... explores what it means to be highly sensitive (Harper 2015).

Ireland, P. (Director). (2016). Pawno [Film]. Toothless Pictures.


Harper, W. (Director). (2015). Sensitive: The untold story [Film]. Global Touch Group. 

TV Show or Series

(Overton, 2018)



The Good Doctor (Shore, 2017-present) follows the story of...

Overton, P. (Executive Producer). (2018, July 17). The truth about getting fit [TV documentary]. BBC TV. 


Shore, D. (Executive Producer). (2017-present). The good doctor [TV series]. ABC Studios; Sony Pictures Television.

TV Episode from Series Egan and Weyr (2019) portray Dr Shaun Murphy...

Egan, D. (Writer), & Weyr, T. N. (Director). (2019, October 14). Take my hand (Season 3, Episode 4) [TV series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), The good doctor. ABC Studios; Sony Pictures Television.

TED Talk

...celebrating the music and rhythm of everyday language (Delgado Lopera, 2019).



Lera Boroditsky explores how the languages we speak shape our minds (TED, 2018).


Delgado Lopera, J. (2019, January). The poetry of everyday speech [Video]. TEDx Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/juliana_delgado_lopera_the_poetry_of_everyday_speech

When referencing a TED talk retrieved directly from the TED website; list the presenter of the talk as the author. 

TED. (2018, May 3). Lera BoroditskyHow language shapes the way we think [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/RKK7wGAYP6k

When retrieving a TED talk from YouTube; list TED as the author (as they are the 'uploader'). Be sure to mention the presenter's name in the body of your text (see left).

YouTube Video …discussing student's communication needs with teachers (Autism Spectrum Australia, 2022).

Autism Spectrum Australia. (2022, August 22). Meet Seham. Speech pathologist at Aspect Macarthur school [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/tqVI4TCKyfY

The person (or group) who uploaded the video is credited as the author.  The uploader may have a username, this can be used as the Author; if the uploader's real name is also known, use it with the username following in [square brackets].

Podcast: Series Radiolab (Abumrad & Krulwich, 2009-present) covers philosophical and scientific topics.

Abumrad, J., & Krulwich, R. (Hosts). (2009-present). Radiolab [Audio podcast]. WNYC. https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/radiolab

Podcast: Episode

... plants sense without a brain (Abumrad & Krulwich, 2018).

Abumrad, J., & Krulwich, R. (Hosts). (2018, February 14). Smarty plants [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab. WNYC.  https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/radiolab/articles/smarty-plants
Include the episode number, in (round brackets) following the episode title, if relevant.


Authors of audiovisual media

The following contributors to audiovisual works are used as the 'author'.

  • Film - Director
  • TV series - Executive producer(s)
  • TV series episode - Writer & director of episode
  • Podcast - Host or executive producer
  • Podcast episode - Host of episode
  • Webinar - Instructor
  • Classical music album or song - Composer
  • Modern music album or song - Recording artist
  • Online streaming video (e.g. YouTube) - Person or group who uploaded the video

(Adapted from the APA Publication Manual, 2020, p. 341)