This guide is an introduction to the APA (American Psychological Association) referencing system. It is based on the APA's official style guide:
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
Before you write your reference list or bibliography, check with academic/teaching staff which style they prefer you to use and refer to the instructions included with your assignment.
Advice on APA 7th style can be found on the official APA style blog and official APA Style website.
Note: Reference examples in this guide contain no live links or live DOIs as live links do not display well and do not resolve to authenticated full text content. Refer to the Getting Started page for guidance regarding live links/DOIs in APA referencing.
We acknowledge the Ancestors, Elders and families of the Kulin Nation (Melbourne campuses), the Eora Nation (Sydney campus) and the Yulara/Yugarapul and Turrbal Nation (Brisbane campus) who are the traditional owners of University land. As we share our own knowledge practices within the University, may we pay respect to the deep knowledge embedded within the Aboriginal community and recognise their ownership of Country.