Oxford Referencing: Sample Reference List

Related links within this guide

What is a Reference List in Oxford?

Your Reference List should be located on a separate page at the end of your essay and titled: Reference List. It should include the details of all your footnotes, arranged alphabetically A-Z by author surname, see Sample Reference List below. The terms ‘Bibliography’ and ‘Reference List’ are often used interchangeably, however a Reference List only includes items you have cited in your assignment whereas a Bibliography also includes items used to prepare your assignment. Check with your lecturer or tutor which one they require. Other points to note:

  • In your footnotes, the author’s given name precedes the surname i.e. P. Grimshaw, while in the Reference List the surname comes first i.e. Grimshaw, P.,
  • If the work has no author use the first substantive word of the title (not The or A) to insert it into the alphabetical sequence.
  • In the Reference List include the full page range of a journal article or book chapter, e.g. pp. 165-217. Page numbers are not required for entire books in the Reference List.
  • If you have cited more than one work by the same author, you should arrange them by date with the earliest first. If the dates are the same add a lower case letter after the date to differentiate between two such publications, e.g. 1996a, 1996b. See 'Black' in the Reference List example below. Use this convention in your footnotes as well.
  • Examples of citing different formats of works in your Reference List is available in Reference formats & examples. An example of the layout of a Reference List is below.
  • Some lecturers or tutors require your Reference List to be divided into Primary and Secondary Sources. See the last box below for an explanation of this layout.

Oxford sample reference list

Reference List

Addo, P., and Besnier, N., 'When Gifts Become Commodities: Pawnshops, Valuables, and Shame in Tonga and the Tongan Diaspora', Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. 14, no. 1, 2008, pp. 35-40.

Alexander, S., 'Peace March in Melbourne' [letter to W.R. Gibson], 1 November 1911, Professor W.R. Gibson Collection, University of Melbourne Archives, Melbourne, VIC, Box 2/1/1.

Beever, E.A. (ed.), Ecological Consequences of Climate Change, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 2012.

Black, J.,The British Empire: A History and a Debate, London, UK, Routledge, 2015a.

Black, J., British Politics and Foreign Policy, 1744-57: Mid Century Crisis, London, UK, Routledge, 2015b.

Booth, B.D., Murphy, S.D., and Swanton, C.J., Invasive Plant Ecology in Natural and Agricultural Systems, 2nd edn., Cambridge, MA., CABI, 2011.

Collins English Dictionary,  12th edn., Glasgow, UK, HarperCollins, 2014.

GiovagnorioF.,'Dedications for the Hero Ptoios in AkraiphiaBoeotia',  Rosettano. 22, Spring 2018, p. 20http://www.rosetta.bham.ac.uk, (accessed 18 September 2018).

International Labour Organisation, World Report oChild Labour, Geneva, International Labour Organisation, 2015.

James Hardie Industries NV v Australian Securities and Investments Commission (2010) 274 ALR 85

Kozicz, G., 'Architecture of the Empty Shells of Nyarma', Discoveries in Western Tibet and the Western Himalayas: Essays on History, Literature, Archaeology and Art: PIATS 2003, Tibetan Studies, Proceedings of the Tenth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 38-47.

Le Gallienne, D., Goossens Made Musical History, The Argus, 23 November 1954, p. 7.

McKenzie-Mohr, D. et al., Social Marketing to Protect the Environment, Thousand Oaks, CA, SAGE Publications, 2012.

Oztas, S., A Literary Genre in Value Education in History Courses: Poems, Journal of Education and Training Studies, vol. 6, no. 5, 2018, pp. 34-39.

Pearman, G.I., 'Climate Change', in Goldie, J., Douglas, B., and Furnass, B. (eds.),  In Search of Sustainability, Collingwood, VIC, CSIRO Publishing, 2004, pp. 93-108.

The Red Badge of Courage [dvd], Director J. Huston, Burbank, CA, MGM, 1951.

Spencer, M. et al., 'Analyzing the Order of Items in Manuscripts of "the Canterbury Tales"', Computers and the Humanities, vol. 37, no. 1, 2003, pp. 97-109.

Suwetwattanakul, C., Developing a Knowledge Sharing Model for the Implementation of the Learning Organization in Thailand, Ph.D. diss., Melbourne, Victoria University, 2010.

The Euthansia Debate [online video], Presenter A. Denton, Sydney, Australia, Studio 10, 2016, https://youtu.be/w4Aq1-H2GD0 (accessed 2 January 2019).

Oxford sample Reference List: Separating Primary and Secondary Sources

Some lecturers or tutors prefer your Reference List to be divided into Primary and Secondary Sources:

Primary Source is an original work or document, i.e. the raw material or first-hand information used in research. Primary sources include historical and legal documents, archival material, eyewitness accounts, autobiographies, diaries, letters, photographs, novels, poems, plays, films, newsreels, statistical data and original research published in a journal article or book, or produced as a thesis.

Secondary Source is something written about a primary source. Secondary sources include comments on, interpretations of, evaluations or discussions about the original material. Secondary source materials can be articles in newspapers or scholarly journals, documentaries, or books or chapters written about events or about original research.   

Check with your lecturer or tutor as to which style of Reference List they require. An example of the Primary/Secondary Sources Reference List style is below:

Reference List

Primary Sources

Alexander, S., 'Peace March in Melbourne' [letter to W.R. Gibson], 1 November 1911, Professor W.R. Gibson Collection, University of Melbourne Archives, Melbourne, VIC, Box 2/1/1.

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Queensland Office, The Economic Status of Migrants in Australia, Canberra, ACT, Australian Govt. Pub. Service, 1990.

Chaucer, G., The Canterbury Tales, ed. F.N. Robinson, 2nd edn., London, UK, Oxford University Press, 1957.

Davison, R.M., 'Re: Removal of Union Signage' [email to H.S. Gardin], 1 August 2008, http:www.rdavidson.org.au/letters/2008/8/1.pdf, (accessed 3 March 2011).

Dewell, G., 'Theft, Simple Larceny' [proceedings of the Old Bailey], 16 February 1832, Ref. No. t18320216-60, http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/index.jsp, (accessed 20 February 2010).  

James Hardie Industries NV v Australian Securities and Investments Commission (2010) 274 ALR 85

Maloney, J.E., 'Recollections of Canberra' [interviewed by John Ferrell], 12 August 1991, John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library, Curtin University, Perth, WA, JCMPL00897/3.

The Red Badge of Courage [dvd], Director J. Huston, Burbank, CA, MGM, 1951.

Schultz, J.E., This Birth Place of Souls: The Civil War Nursing Diary of Harriet Eaton, Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press, 2010.

Suwetwattanakul, C., Developing a Knowledge Sharing Model for the Implementation of the Learning Organization in Thailand, Ph.D. diss., Melbourne, Victoria University, 2010.
 

Secondary Sources 

Addo, P., and Besnier, N., 'When Gifts Become Commodities: Pawnshops, Valuables, and Shame in Tonga and the Tongan Diaspora', Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. 14, no. 1, 2008, pp. 35-40.

Beever, E.A. (ed.), Ecological Consequences of Climate Change, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 2012.

Booth, B.D., Murphy, S.D., and Swanton, C.J., Invasive Plant Ecology in Natural and Agricultural Systems, 2nd edn., Cambridge, MA., CABI, 2011.

Collins English Dictionary, 12th edn., Glasgow, UK, HarperCollins, 2014.

Death Debate: Should Euthanasia be Legalised? [online video], Presenter B. Dutt, Mumbai, India, NDTV, 2007, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y_FOwchgglc, (accessed 12 January 2012).Moore, K.R., 'Was Pythagoras Ever Really in Sparta?', Rosetta, no. 6, Spring 2009, pp. 1-14, http://www.rosetta.bham.ac.uk, (accessed 10 September 2010).

Pearman, G.I., 'Climate Change', in Goldie, J., Douglas, B., and Furnass, B. (eds.), In Search of Sustainability, Collingwood, VIC, CSIRO Publishing, 2004, pp. 93-108.

Spencer, M. et al., 'Analyzing the Order of Items in Manuscripts of "The Canterbury Tales"', Computers and the Humanities, vol. 37, no. 1, 2003, pp. 97-109.