Data can be deposited in one or more data repositories. It is not uncommon for the repository to only include the metadata for the data with directions for how to request access to the data (frequently the request must be made directly to the researcher responsible for the data).
WikiData - the world's free knowledge base.
Wikimedia UK - a University-based prohect to add digitised academic content to Wikipedia.
Figshare - register for free to be able to load or search for data.
Australian Data Archive - a national service for the collection and preservation of digital research data.
Research Data Storage Infrastructure (RDSI) - aims to improve the availability of research data for sharing and re-use.
Research Data Australia - The Australia National Data Service (ANDS) for storage and discovery.
National eResearch Collaboration Tools And Resources (NeCTAR) Project - data from Australian projects and collaborations.
Re3data.org (Registry of Research Data Repositories) - global registry of research data repositories that covers research data repositories from different academic disciplines.
Research Pipeline is a guide to the world's free data.
This is a brief list of some well known data repositories.