Each entry starts with APA 7th ed. style citation, which provides full publication details of the source. The citation is formatted the same as a normal bibliography entry:
The annotation appears on a new line directly after the source citation. The whole annotation is indented and formatted the same as the main text of any paper in APA style:
You will find more examples of annotated bibliographies on the Simulation Innovation and Resource Center website. Remember that the annotations you include in your bibliography should reflect the guidelines of your assignment.
Some limitations in formatting impacted the produced text. Please check the section of this guide How to format an annotated bibliography according to APA 7th ed. style of referencing for exact indentations, the spacing between lines, and the font size.
Rapaport, M. H., Nierenberg, A. A., Howland, R, Dording, C, Schettler, P. J., & Mischoulon, D. (2011). The treatment of minor depression with St John’s Wort or Citalopram: Failure to show benefit over placebo. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45 (7), 931-941. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.05.001
This article evaluates the effectiveness of St John’s Wort, Citalopram and placebo in decreasing the severity of symptoms for subjects with minor depression. In this study, a 12-week double-blind randomised method was adopted with participants recruited through clinical referrals and community advertising. Seventy-three subjects were assigned into three treatment groups and received daily the following dosage: 810 mg of St John’s Wort, 20 mg of Citalopram and a look-alike placebo. A total of six visits data was collected over the study period using validated and structured assessments and personal interviews. The findings show similar adverse reactions; however, Citalopram scored the highest at 100 percent with St John's wort scoring 84.6 percent and placebo 91.3 percent. Although the research supports the use of St John’s Wort in managing depression there is no certainty as to which treatment would be better for minor depression. The limitations found in this study including the small sample size of 73 subjects and exclusion of subjects with “organic mental disorders, substance use disorders, current or within one year of psychotic symptoms or disorders, bipolar disorder or antisocial personality disorder”(p.3) call for further research. This article is relevant to my research as it highlights the non-pharmacological treatment for minor depression.
Please note that the Harvard style of referencing does not provide any specific direction for preparing an annotated bibliography. The following is one possible format. It is recommended that you consult with your lecturer or tutor for more specific guidelines on how to present the annotated bibliography.
Wahl, D, Cogger, VC, Solon-Biet, SM, Waern, RVR, Gokarn, R, Pulpitel, T, Cabo, R de, Mattson, MP, Raubenheimer, D, Simpson, SJ & Le Couteur, DG 2016, ‘Nutritional strategies to optimise cognitive function in the aging brain’, Ageing Research Reviews, vol. 31, pp. 80–92.
This review identifies studies on understanding the biology of aging, and the development of nutritional interventions that delay age-related disorders and pathologies. It also tests the hypothesis that calorie restriction and intermittent fasting influence brain health and dementia in the elderly. Multiple studies on animals have shown that calorie restriction and intermittent fasting delay features of aging thus positively affect brain health. However, in humans, the research brings mixed results. At this time, the majority of evidence indicates that both approaches have a positive effect on healthspan and lifespan only. There are converging results confirming that nutrition has important roles in preserving cognition and reducing the risk of depression. Although the strong evidence comes from many approaches including the Okinawan diet as well as the Mediterranean diet and multimodal approach, further study on dietary patterns and their impact on delaying or suppressing symptoms of neurodegradation are recommended. The effective usage of references to other studies shows the authors credibility and lack of bias. The article is helpful for my essay since it integrates evidence from multiple study designs and methodologies.