Bachelor of Dermal Sciences: Referencing

APA Referencing - introduction

The referencing style required for units in the Bachelor of Dermal Sciences is APA style. However, it is always a good idea to confirm with individual unit coordinators as to which referencing style is required.

Information about why you need to reference is available in the Referencing & Plagiarism guide.

Access the Victoria University APA Referencing Guide.

What is a DOI?

DOI (Digital Object Identifer) provides a persistent electronic link to a journal article or e-book. APA referencing style requires the DOI (where available ) to be included in the Reference List citation.

DOIs must always be presented in the format, for e.g.

Example journal article reference with doi:

Braaf, S., Riley, R., & Manias, E. (2015). Failures in communication through documents and documentation across the perioperative pathway. Journal of  Clinical Nursing24(13/14), 1874-1884.

Referencing and Citing

Visit  VU EasyRef  an interactive referencing tool or check the Referencing Library Guide. They provide information referencing as well as examples of in-text citations, the reference list and various reference types in APA Style.


Watch the video to learn how to reference:


The documents here provide basic templates to create book and journal article references in APA style.

Compiling a Reference list

All in-text references should be listed in the reference list at the end of your document. The purpose of the reference list entry is to contain all the information that a reader of your work needs to follow-up on your sources. An important principle in referencing is to be consistent.

When compiling your APA Reference List, you should:

  • List references on a new page with a centred heading titled: References.
  • Include all your references, regardless of format, e.g. books, journal articles, online sources, in one alphabetical listing from A - Z.
  • Order entries alphabetically by surname of author(s).
  • List works with no author under the first significant word of the title.
  • Indent second and subsequent lines of each entry (5-7 spaces).
  • Use double spacing.
  • Note that all references in APA end with a full stop except when the reference ends with a URL or a DOI.

Check a short sample reference list.