IEEE Referencing: Audio-visual material

Basic format to reference a DVD

[#]    Author(s) Initial(s). Surname(s) (Year of publication). Title of the DVD, xth ed. [DVD]. City of Publisher, (U.S. State or Country if the City is not "well known": Publisher.

Referencing elements to cite:

  • [#] Reference number if applicable (matching the in-text citation number)
  • Author’s first initial. Author’s second initial, if provided. Author’s last name
  • Title of the DVD, in italics. Important words of the title are capitalised, but not minor such as ‘and’, ‘of', 'on', etc.
  • ​Edition number
  • Place of Publication
  • Publisher/Production information

[1]     Films Media Group (2006), Electrical components. Part one: Resistors, Batteries and Switches [DVD]. Monmouth Junction, NJ: Shopware.

Basic format to reference a streaming video

[#]   Producer (Year of publication). Title [Streaming Video]. Accessed on: Abbrev. Month, Day, Year. Available: site/file/path

Referencing elements to cite:

  • [#] Reference number (matching the in-text citation number)
  • Producer’s name
  • Year of Publication
  • Title of the streaming video, in italics. Important words of the title are capitalised, but not minor such as 'and’, ‘of’, ‘on’, etc.‘and’, ‘but’, etc.
  • [Streaming Video]
  • Available from: Library Database that provided the streaming video
  • Accessed on: Month, Day, Year. Refer to the Abbreviated month section for further information

[2]     Kanopy Streaming Service (2012). Engineering: The Break Press [Streaming Video]. Accessed on: Feb. 9, 2017. Available:

Referencing audio-visual material: Examples

Material type In-text example Reference List example

The issue, as discussed in [1],  indicated how necessary it is to consider ...

 [1]    Fire Engineering (2009). Fire Engineering's Skill Drills DVD for Firefighter I and II: The Traditions and Mission of the Fire Service [DVD]. Tulsa, OK: PennWell.

Youtube video                                         

Responsibilities of contractors are discussed in [7].

 [7]   Learn Engineering (2016, Jan. 16). Automatic Transmission, How it works? [Video file]. Accessed on: Jan. 25, 2016. Available:

Note: the date of publication refers to publication or modification date.

Streaming video As demonstrated in [4], it can be seen that the issues are …

 [4]    Kanopy Streaming Service (2015). Electrical Power Transmission: The Grid [Streaming Video]. Accessed on: Feb. 1, 2016. Available: