IEEE Referencing: Sample Reference List

The Reference List in IEEE

At the end of the paper provide full details of all references cited in-text. The reference list should be arranged in the order of appearance of the in-text citations, not in an alphabetical order, beginning with [1], and continuing in an ascending numerical order, from the lowest number to the highest. In the reference list, only one resource per reference number is acceptable.

Publication titles of books and journals are italicised. In the publication titles, all ‘major words’ (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and pronouns) are also capitalised. Use lower case for ‘minor’ words, such as conjunctions (and, or, not, but), articles (a, an, the), and prepositions (in, on, near, as, at, by, for, etc.), providing they are not the first word in a title or subtitle. Titles of articles, chapters, etc. are placed in quotation marks, in lower case.

Format the reference list using 1.5 line spacing and single paragraph spacing between each reference.

Typical reference list entry

The typical components of a reference list are laid our below. Each reference entry should generally contain the referencing elements in the following order (if one of these elements is not recorded in the original source, then you can only use the elements provided - do not make others up):

  • Citation number, enclosed within square brackets, is aligned along the left margin. The text of the entry is indented 2 or 3 spaces;
  • Author(s) name(s): first names’  initials are placed first, followed by last names;
  • Title of the article, book chapter, conference paper or report is typed in double quotation marks, with text provided in lower case;
  • Book , Journal or Conference Title is typed in italics. Capitalize the first letter of each important word in the title;
  • Publication information: City, State (if U.S.) or Country if City is not well known: Publisher Name, Date;
  • Page number(s) if applicable, i.e. if you are referencing a book section, a book chapter in an edited book, or an article. Page numbers are cited as p. for a single page or pp. for multiple pages.

IEEE Sample Reference List

Reference List

[1]     R. E. Ziemer and W. H. Tranter, Principles of Communications, 7th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2015. [Online]. Available:

[2]    J. D. Bellamy et al., Computer Telephony Integration. New York: Wiley, 2010. 

[3]    C. Jacks, High Rupturing Capacity (HRC) Fuses. New York: Penguin Random House, 2013, pp. 175–225.

[4]    N. B. Vargafik, J. A. Wiebelt, and J. F. Malloy, "Radiative transfer," in Convective Heat. Melbourne: Engineering Education Australia, 2011, ch. 9, pp. 379–398.

[5]    H. C. Hottel and R. Siegel, "Film condensation," in Handbook of Heat Transfer, 2nd ed. W. C. McAdams, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011, ch. 9, pp. 78–99.

[6]   W. M. Rohsenow, "Heat transmission," in Thermal Radiation Properties, vol. 3, M. W. Catton and J. P. Hartnett, Eds. New York: Macmillan, 2012, ch. 9, pp. 37–62.

[7]     H. Schmidt-Walter and R. Kories, Electrical Engineering. A Pocket Reference. Boston: Artech House, 2007. Accessed: Oct. 16, 2016. [Online]. Available:

[8]     H. H. Gaynor, Leading and Managing Engineering and Technology, Book 2: Developing Managers and Leaders. IEEE-USA, 2011. Accessed: Oct. 15, 2016. [Online]. Available:

[9]     G. H. Gaynor, "Dealing with the manager leader dichotomy," in Leading and Managing Engineering and Technology, Book 2, Developing Leaders and Mangers. IEEE-USA, 2011, pp. 27–28. Accessed: Jan. 23, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[10]     M. Cvijetic, "Optical transport system engineering," in Wiley Encyclopedia of Telecommunications, vol. 4, J. G. Proakis, Ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2003, pp. 1840–1849. Accessed: Feb. 5, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[11]     T. Kaczorek, "Minimum energy control of fractional positive electrical circuits", Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 65, no. 2, pp.191201, 2016.

[12]     P. Harsha and M. Dahleh, "Optimal management and sizing of energy storage under dynamic pricing for the efficient integration of renewable energy", IEEE Trans. Power Sys., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 11641181, May 2015.

[13]     A. Vaskuri, H. Baumgartner, P. Kärhä, G. Andor, and E. Ikonen, "Modeling the spectral shape of InGaAlP-based red light-emitting diodes," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 118, no. 20, pp. 203103-1203103-7, Jul. 2015. Accessed: Feb. 9, 2017. doi: 10.1063/1.4936322. [Online]. Available:

[14]    K. J. Krishnan, "Implementation of renewable energy to reduce carbon consumption and fuel cell as a back-up power for national broadband network (NBN) in Australia," Ph.D dissertation, College of Eng. and Sc., Victoria Univ., Melbourne, 2013. [Online]. Available:

[15]    C. R. Ozansoy, "Design and implementation of a Universal Communications Processor for substation integration, automation and protection," Ph.D. dissertation, College of Eng. and Sc., Victoria Univ., Melbourne, 2006. Accessed: June 22, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[16]    M. T. Long, "On the statistical correlation between the heave, pitch and roll motion of road transport vehicles,"  M.S. thesis, College of Eng. and Sc., Victoria Univ., Melbourne, Mar. 2016. [Online]. Available:

[17]     Engineers Australia, "Cook Islands Renewable Energy.," (accessed: Oct. 3, 2021).

[18]     Audel Electrician's Pocket Manual, 2nd ed.Wiley Pub., Indianapolis, IN, 2003.

[19]    Electrical Safety Rules CEOP8030, no. 15, Essential Energy, Aug. 15, 2017. Accessed: May. 1, 2022. [Online]. Available:

[20]    Safe Working on or Near Low-voltage Electrical Installations and EquipmentAS/NZS 4836:2011, 2011. 

[21]      N. Tesla, "System of electrical distribution," United States Patent 390413, Oct. 2, 1888. 

[22]     Fixing system for an electrical plate, by Legrand Australia Pty Ltd. (2016, Dec. 22). Patent 2016905338 [Online]. Available: AusPat database

[23]    S. r. Ayyubi, Y. Miao, and H. Shi, "Automating standalone smoke alarms for early remote notifications," presented at the 13th Intern. Conf. on Cont. Automa. Robotics & Vision (ICARCV), Marina Bay Sands, Singapore, Dec. 2014, pp. 675–680.

[24]     W. M. Brown, A. Semin, M. Hebenstreit, S. Khvostov, K. Raman, and S. J. Plimpton, "Increasing molecular dynamics simulation rates with an 8-fold increase in electrical power efficiency," in SC '16 Proc. of the Int. Conf. for High Perf. Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis, Article No. 8, Salt Lake City, Utah, IEEE Press Piscataway, November 13 - 18 2016.

[25]    D. Smith, “17th Construction Squadron Relocation Infrastructure Project,” Canberra Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Canberra, ACT, Rep. no. 5, June 2015.

[26]    G. Glass, "Electrical safety program: Nonelectrical crafts at LANL, Live #12175," Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, LA-UR--16-29637, 2016. Accessed on Feb. 1, 2017. [Online]. Available: doi:10.2172/1338684

[27]    H. King. (2022). NEF1103 Session 1: Overview of engineering. [Online]. Available:

[28]     Films Media Group, Electrical Components. Part One: Resistors, Batteries and Switches. [DVD]. Monmouth Junction, NJ: Shopware, 2006.

[29]     Kanopy Streaming Service. Electrical Power Transmission: The Grid. (2015). Accessed: Feb. 1, 2022. [Streaming Video]. Available: 

[30]    ABC Science. Electricity - An Electric Current Flows through Wood in Real-Time Phenomena. (Jun 8, 2021). Accessed: Jan. 25, 2022. [Online Video]. Available:

[31]   H. Shi, private communication, Apr. 2022. 

[32]   X. Xu, M. Wu, K. Yu, "Comprehensive survey of automated audio captioning," May 2022, arXiv:2205.05357.

[33]   S. Salim, B. Turnball, and N. Moustafa, 2021, "Social Media 3.0 Dataset for Integrating Social Media and Internet of Things (SM-IoT) Systems," University of New South Wales,