IEEE Referencing: Figures, tables and equations

Figures, tables and equations from another source

Figures are visual presentations of results, such as graphs, diagrams, images, drawings, schematics, maps, etc. 

If you are referring to a specific figure, table or equation found in another source, place a citation number in brackets directly after its mention in the text, and then use the following notation, including the full details of the source in the reference list. 

Figure                   … as illustrated in [5, Fig. 1]

Table                     … is presented in [5, Tab. 3]

Equation              … as seen in [5, eq. (2)]

Do not write phrases such as “in Fig. 1 of reference [5]”; rather the text should be edited to read simply “in [5, Fig. 1]”. Similarly, rewrite phrases such as “in equation (2) of reference [5]” to be [5, eq. (2)].

The reference of the figure, table or equation is included in the reference list in accordance with the source format within which this information is provided, e.g. book, journal article, and technical report of this guide.

Figures, tables and equations from another source: Examples

Material type  In-text example Reference List example

The entire experimental procedure is given in [2, Fig. 1].                                    

 [2]    T. Bohné, I. Heine, Ö. Gürerk, C. Rieger, L. Kemmer and L. Y. Cao, "Perception engineering learning with virtual reality," in IEEE Trans. on Learn. Technologies, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 500-514, 1 Aug. 2021. doi: 10.1109/TLT.2021.3107407.

 Note: This is an electronic journal article format example.


Design elements in virtual reality and augmented reality are seen in [6, Tab. 1.2] ...

 [6]   D. Le, L. C. Van, J. G. Tromp, and G. N. Nguyen, Eds. Emerging Technologies for Health and Medicine : Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, Robotics, Industry 4. 0. John Wiley & Sons, 2018.

Note: This is an electronic book format example.



This result matches the one obtained in [5, eq. (14)].

[5]    R. H. Byor, “Nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment,” Ph.D. dissertation, College of Eng. and Sci., Victoria Univ., Melbourne, 2016, p. 84.

Note: This is a Ph.D dissertation format example.

Figures, tables and equations in your own work

If you have provided your own figure, table or equation, there will be no references. However all tables and figures in your paper must be referred to in the main body of the text:

Electronic equipment casings are shown in Fig. 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Other specifications for these three casings are given in Table 1. Equations (1), (2), and (3) were applied for the thermal design of ventilated enclosures used in the equipment casings.

Figures, tables and equations within a paper are numbered consecutively from the beginning of the paper to the end.