IEEE Referencing: Web-based document or source

Web-based publications

The principal guide for citing online sources involves following the standard reference format for the source, and also providing navigational elements such as an internet address and date of access (the date the document/page is viewed), or the Digital Object Identifier (DOI), if it is present.

If a publication is published by an organisation, association or a corporation, and there are no personal authors' names listed on the page, then list that institution as an author (this use is known as listing a corporate author, as opposed to listing a personal author). The corporate author may also be provided as the publisher of a source if the publisher's information is not listed on the page. 

Basic format to reference a web-based document or source

[#]    Author(s) Initial(s). Surname(s), Title of the Webpage, Publisher/Production information (if relevant), Abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: Abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]]. Available: site/path/file

Referencing elements to cite:

  • [#] Reference number (matching the in-text citation number)
  • Author’s first initial. Author’s second initial, if provided. Author’s last name
  • Title of the document/source, in italics. Important words of the title are capitalised for important words, not minor such as ‘and’, 'of', 'on' , etc.​
  • Publisher/Production information
  • Year, Abbreviated Month and Day of publication. Refer to the Abbreviated month section for further information.
  • Accessed on: Abbrev. Month, Day, Year. Refer to the Abbreviated month section for further information
  • [Online]
  • Available: site/path/file location of an electronic source, a full URL or www


[1]     D. Holland, Finding the Building Blocks of Wood, The University of Melbourne, June 6, 2018. Accessed on: June 13, 2018. [Online]. Available:

Referencing a web-based publication or source: Examples

Material type In-text example Reference List example

Web based source: Individual author

As mentioned in [9], solar panels ...     

[9]     M. Crawford, Catching the Sun, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Feb. 2013. Accessed on: Nov. 2, 2017. [Online]. Available:

Web based source: Corporate author

Engineers Australia [12] provided the evidence ...

[12]    Engineers Australia, Cook Islands Renewable Energy, Engineers Australia, Engineering House, Barton, ACT, Australia, July 15, 2015. Accessed on: Oct. 3, 2017. [Online]. Available: 

Web based source: No author

As seen in [7], the Panama Canal ...


[7]    “Engineering Triumph That Forged a Nation: Panama Canal Turns 100,” Aug. 15, 2014. Accessed on: Nov. 3, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.

Note: Where there is no author, use the web source title enclosed in double quotation marks.