IEEE Referencing: Web-based document or source

Web-based publications

The principal guide for citing online sources involves following the standard reference format for the source, and also providing navigational elements such as an internet address and date of access (the date the document/page is viewed), or the Digital Object Identifier (DOI), if it is present.

If a publication is published by an organisation, association or a corporation, and there are no personal authors' names listed on the page, then list that institution as an author (this use is known as listing a corporate author, as opposed to listing a personal author). The corporate author may also be provided as the publisher of a source if the publisher's information is not listed on the page. 

Connect through to format example which provides a review of each component that needs to be included in a reference.

Components of each format example

Then move to the FURTHER EXAMPLES table with many examples of book and e-book format types. 


Basic format to reference a web-based document or source

[#]    Author(s) Initial(s). Surname(s), "Page title." Website title. Web Address (accessed date retrieved).

Referencing elements to cite:

  • [#] Reference number (matching the in-text citation number)
  • Author’s first initial. Author’s second initial, if provided. Author’s last name
  • Page Title of the document/source, in italics and double quotation marks. Important words of the title are capitalised for important words, not minor such as ‘and’, 'of', 'on', etc.​
  • Website title. The IEEE prefers sparing use of capitalisation, sometimes referred to as the "down" style. Refer to 'Capitalization' in the Chicago Manual of Style. There is an easy to use smart online tool titled Title Case Converter that allows you to enter text, and then shows you how the text would be formatted in title case according to the major style guides including the Chicago.
  • Web address: site/path/file location of an electronic source, a full URL or www
  • Accessed date retrieved. Refer to the Abbreviated month section for further information.

[1]     D. Holland, "Finding the Building Blocks of Wood." (accessed June 13, 2021).

Material type  In-text example Reference List example
Web-based source: Individual author

As mentioned in [9], solar panels ...                                  

 [9]     M. Crawford, "Catching the Sun." (accessed Feb. 5, 2022).


Web-based source: Corporate author

Engineers Australia [12] provided the evidence ...

 [12]   Engineers Australia, "Cook Islands Renewable Energy," (accessed Oct. 3, 2021).


Web-based source: No author


As seen in [7], the Panama Canal ...

[7]    “Engineering Triumph That Forged a Nation: Panama Canal Turns 100,” http://www. (accessed Nov. 3, 2021).

Note: Where there is no author, use the web source title enclosed in double quotation marks.