IEEE Referencing: Getting started with IEEE referencing

In IEEE, all sources of information, such as quotes or borrowed ideas, must be acknowledged in your writing.

At the point of your writing, in the IEEE referencing style, a number [X] is inserted where you cite another author's work.

At the end of your work, the full reference [X] of the work is provided. The reference list contains full details of all sources cited in-text. Reference list entries should appear in the order the sources are cited in the text of the paper, beginning with [1], and continuing in the ascending numerical order, from the lowest number to the highest. Reference list entries do not follow an alphabetical order by author or title of sources.

Refer to the information on the Sample Reference List box of this guide.

Work through the links on these sub-page to access information on:

Secondary sources

The IEEE style does not allow for the use of secondary citations.

If you want to refer to the ideas or words of an author found in a source that you have not read yourself, but have read about it in another source (for example if you want to refer to William’s work found in Taylor’s), then you must locate the original source of this information (William’s) and cite the original source. If the original source cannot be located, it should not be cited.


When citing electronic sources such as e-books or e-journal articles, you must include a digital object identifier (DOI) if it has been provided. A DOI is an unique alphanumeric string indicating a persistent link to its location on the Internet.  It is preferable to add a DOI to a reference using the following formats:
1. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxxx
If the DOI has not been provided, either provide the Victoria University database homepage URL through which the source has been accessed, or the full URL along with the access date if taken from a source on the open web. Note that there is no full stop after the DOI/URL, and the hyperlink is removed.
It is acceptable to shorten the full URL to its abbreviated version to simply indicate the main database provider of the source. For example:

* the full URL: http://0- can be abridged to just so that the URL statement will be: Available:

* the full URL: can be abridged to just so that the URL statement will be: Available:

* the full URL: can be abridged so that the URL statement will be: Available: Kanopy Streaming database