Bachelor of Laws: AGLC4

A comprehensive guide to legal research created by the VU Law Library

AGLC Checklist

Why Reference?

Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism, to verity quotes and to enable readers to identify and consult any item to follow-up a cited author's arguments.

The Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) is recommended by Victoria University School of Law for preparing student assignments and research papers. 

For more information check the following:

  • Australian Guide to Legal Citation (Melbourne University Law Review Association, 4th ed, 2018)
  • Academic Integrity Policy (Victoria University)

Useful Tips

  • The most important principle in referencing is to be consistent
  • All sources used in assignments, essays, reports and theses must be acknowledged in the text of your document by giving a footnote to identify the author's name (first name and surname) and publication details including date
  • A 'reference list' or 'bibliography' at the end of your document contains the full details of all your references, arranged alphabetically by author's surname and grouped in specific sections
  • Reference list and bibliography are terms often used interchangeably - a reference list only includes items you have cited in your assignment whereas a bibliography also inlcudes items you used to prepare your assignment (check with your lecturer/tutor which they require)
  • A 'pinpoint' reference is used to identify the page within a work that is being referred to

United Nations Materials

Frequently Cited UN Treaties / Official Documents

Charter of the United Nations.

Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, opened for signature 4 November 1950, 213 UNTS 221 (entered into force 3 September 1953).

Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, opened for signature 18 December 1979, 1249 UNTS 13 (entered into force 3 September 1981).

Convention on the Rights of a Child, opened for signature 20 November 1989, 1577 UNTS 3 (entered into force 2 September 1990).

Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, opened for signature 13 December 2006, 2515 UNTS 3 (entered into force 3 May 2008).

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, opened for signature 28 July 1951, 189 UNTS 150 (entered into force 22 April 1954).

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, opened for signature 16 December 1966, 999 UNTS 171 (entered into force 23 March 1976).

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, opened for signature 21 December 1965, 660 UNTS 195 (entered into force 4 January 1969).

Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, opened for signature 11 December 1997, 2303 UNTS 148 (entered into force 16 February 2005).

Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, opened for signature 15 April 1994, 1867 UNTS 3 (entered into force 1 January 1995) annex 1C ('Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights').

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, GA Res 217A (III), UN GAOR, UN Doc A/810 (10 December 1948).

United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, opened for signature 11 April 1980, 1489 UNTS 58 (entered into force I January 1988).

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, opened for signature 23 May 1969, 1155 UNTS 331 (entered into force 27 January 1980).

 

Decisions of UN Treaty Committees

Sample Reference to Human Rights Committee View

Human Rights Committee, Views: Communication No 900/1999, 76th sess, UN Doc CCPR/C/76/D/900/1999 (13 November 2002) (‘C v Australia’).

Where a pinpoint reference is included it should follow immediately after the date.

Please refer to AGLC Rule 9.3.1

Frequently Cited US Materials

Constitution

United States Constitution art IV § 3.

United States Constitution amend XXI.

Texas Constitution art 1 § 8.

Tips:

To type the § symbol, if your keyboard has a number keypad just hold the ALT key and type 21.

For a list of the relevant Pintpoint abbreviations see rule 25.2.4

Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution.  Therefore, reference it as you would the constitution.

United States Constitution amends I – X (‘Bill of Rights’)

Endnote

What is Endnote?

EndNote is a bibliographic management software application that allows you to create a personalised database of references. References can be entered manually, or imported from sources such as the Library journals and databases, or Google Scholar. It is of most use for large pieces of work such as essays longer than 5,000 words.

 The good news:

  • Victoria University holds a site license for EndNote. All on-shore students can download the EndNote software to their home computers via the MyVU portal. 
  • Endnote will format book and journal article citations according to AGLC.
  • It will automatically create a bibliography.

The bad news:

  • Endnote doesn't come with the AGLC style files.  You will need to install these.
  • You'll need to import a new reftype table
  • Endnote won't format case law or legislation references.  You'll still need to do these manually.

Footnotes

  • In the AGLC style, a footnote number is usually a superscripted number (for example: 1, 2, 3) and is used to direct the reader to the information about the sources and quotations placed within the text of the work
  • A footnote number should follow the portion of text to which the footnote refers and should appear after any relevant punctuation
  • Footnote citations appear at the bottom of the page containing the sources
  • If multiple sources are cited in the same sentence in a footnote, a semi-colon is used to separate the sources
  • A full stop appears at the end of every footnote

Example of AGLC

View the sample file to see what AGLC looks like on the page. 

 

Alternatively, view the Victoria University Law Journal to see articles that use AGLC.  Simply choose an article and then click View as PDF.  

About this Guide

A guide to the fourth edition of the Australian Guide to Legal Citation.

Book

The details required in order are: Author(s) Name (as it appears in the source). An author may also be editor(s), compiler(s) or an institution; Title of publication (and Subtitle if any) in italics; Publisher (brief version of name), Edition (if other than the first), Publication Year (in round brackets); Pinpoint (usually to page number(s) if applicable).

Example: Andrew Clarke, John Devereux and Julie Werren, Torts: A Practical Learning Approach (LexisNexis, 3rd ed, 2014).
 

  FOOTNOTE CITATION EXAMPLE  BIBLIOGRAPHY / REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLE
Single Author

1 Stephen Graw, An Introduction to the Law of Contract
(Lawbook, 6th ed, 2008) 91.

When a reference is the same as the preceding footnote, ‘Ibid’ should be used (as below)

Ibid 56. (56 indicates the pinpoint reference)

When citing a source that has previously been cited (other than the immediately preceding footnote) a shortened form of the citation may be provided with cross-reference (in parentheses) to the footnote number in which the citation was shown in full (as below) -


4 Graw (n 1) 120.
(1 and 120 refer to footnote number and pinpoint reference respectively)

Graw, Stephen, An Introduction to the Law of Contract
(Lawbook, 6th ed, 2008)
Two Authors D Khoury and Y Yamouni, Understanding Contract Law (LexisNexis, 7th ed, 2007). Khoury, D and Y Yamouni, Understanding Contract Law (LexisNexis, 7th ed, 2007)
Three Authors Sarah Joseph, Jenny Schultz and Melissa Castan, The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Cases, Materials and Commentary (Oxford University Press, 2nd ed, 2004) 57. Joseph, Sarah, Jenny Schultz and Melissa Castan, The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Cases, Materials and Commentary (Oxford University Press, 2nd ed, 2004)
Three  + Authors B Pentony et al, Understanding Business Law (LexisNexis, 4th ed, 2009) 123. Pentony, B et al, Understanding Business Law (LexisNexis, 4th ed, 2009)
No Author Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (Cambridge University Press, 2003) 943. Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (Cambridge University Press, 2003)
Editor Matthew Groves (ed), Law and Government in Australia (Federation Press, 2005). Groves, Matthew (ed), Law and Government in Australia (Federation Press, 2005)

Institution, Corporation or Other Organisational  Author

 

10 Leo Cusson Institute, Advising Same Sex Couples (2002).


11 Department of Health and Family Services (Cth), Youth Suicide in Australia (1997).

 

Leo Cusson Institute, Advising Same Sex Couples (2002)


Department of Health and Family Services (Cth), Youth Suicide in Australia (1997)

Chapter/Part -Number of Authors Contributed

12 Angus Francis and Neil Andrews, 'Insolvency Law in Taiwan: The Interplay Between Official and Unofficial Law' in Roman Tomasic (ed), Insolvency Law in East Asia (Ashgate, 2006) 125, 131.

Francis, Angus and Neil Andrews, 'Insolvency Law in
Taiwan: The Interplay Between Official and Unofficial Law' in Roman Tomasic (ed), Insolvency Law in East Asia (Ashgate, 2006)
 

Journal Article

PRINT JOURNAL

The details required in order are: Author of the article (as shown in source); Article Title (in single quotation marks); Publication Year (in round brackets); Volume number; Issue number (in round brackets); Journal Title (in italics and capitalised, omitting words such as ‘The’ and ‘An’ from the beginning); Starting Page number, Pinpoint reference to a specific page(s) (if applicable).

Example: Sidney Tilmouth, 'Courtroom Advocacy: Reflections of a Trial Judge' (2012) 36(1) Australian Bar Review 31.

 
  FOOTNOTE CITATION EXAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLE
Single Author 14 Robert French, 'The Role of the High Court in the Recognition of Native Title' (2002) 30(2) University of Western Australian Law Review 129, 131. French, Robert, 'The Role of the High Court in the Recognition of Native Title' (2002) 30(2) University of Western Australian Law Review 129

Two Authors

15 Kathy Bowrey and Natalie Fowell, 'Digging Up Fragments and Building IP Franchises' (2009) 31 Sydney Law Review 185. Bowrey, Kathy and Natalie Fowell, 'Digging Up Fragments and Building IP Franchises' (2009) 31 Sydney Law Review 185

Three Authors

16 Matthew Alderton, Michael Granziera and Martin Smith, 'Judicial Review and Jurisdictional Errors: The Recent Migration Jurisprudence of the High Court of Australia' (2011) 18(3) Australian Journal of Administraive Law 138. Alderton, Matthew, Michael Granziera and Martin Smith, 'Judicial Review and Jurisdictional Errors: The Recent Migration Jurisprudence of the High Court of Australia' (2011) 18(3) Australian Journal of Administraive Law 138

 

 Three +   Authors

17 Darren Bick et al, 'A Gold Mine for Environmental Class Actions in Australia?' (2010) 25(9-10) Australian Environment Review 8. Bick, Darren et al, 'A Gold Mine for Environmental Class Actions in Australia?' (2010) 25(9-10) Australian Environment Review 8

 

Tip: If a journal is organised by year (it does not have a volume number, but may have a numbered issue) the publication date should be shown in square brackets. For example -

...[2009] (46) Australian Rationalist 20.

...[2018] (Autumn) Bar News: Journal of the NSW Bar Association 52.

ONLINE JOURNAL

Articles appearing in journals that are only available online (no print version published), should where possible, be cited in the same manner as articles in printed journals. However, it will often not be possible to include a volume number, issue number or starting page. Where an article has an article number or some other identifier, this would be used instead of a starting page number. If an article appears as a PDF (portable document format) or equivalent, include the page range of the PDF version, after the article identifier.

  FOOTNOTE CITATION EXAMPLE  BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLE

Electronic Journal

 

 

 

19 Lyndon Griggs, 'Torrens Title in a Digital World' (2001) 8(3)   E-Law Journal: Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law  3: 1-7, 2.

(3 and 1-17 and 2 refers to article number 3, pages 1-7 of the PDF version, pinpoint to page 2 respectively)

 

 

 Griggs, Lyndon, 'Torrens Title in a Digital World' (2001) 8(3) E-Law Journal: Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law 3, 1-7

 

 

 

Newspaper Article

PRINT NEWSPAPER

The details required in order are: Author of the article (if available and as it appears in the source); Article Title (in single quotation marks); Name of Newspaper (in italics); Place of Publication, Full Date (in round brackets); Pinpoint Reference to a specific page(s) if applicable.

Example: David Neal, 'The Continuing Crisis in our Legal Aid', The Age (Melbourne, 15 May 2013).

ELECTRONIC NEWSPAPERS

The details required in order are: Author of the article (if available); Article Title (in single quotation marks); Name of the Newspaper in italics; the word online, Full Date (in round brackets); the URL. A pinpoint reference would only be included where the article has pages or paragraphs.

 

  FOOTNOTE CITATION EXAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLE
Print 18 Chris Griffith, 'Bunnies Still Run After Day in Court', The Courier Mail (Brisbane, 30 July 2002) 3. Griffith, Chris, 'Bunnies Still Run After Day in Court', The Courier Mail (Brisbane, 30 July 2002)
Electronic  19 Johnathon Ames, ‘Unpaid Work: A crucial Pillar of Justice', The Times (online, 10 November 2016) <http://www.times.co.uk/article/unpaid-work-a-crucial-pillar-of-justice-rnx5rd6fs>. Ames, Johnathon, 'Unpaid Work: A Crucial Pillar of Justice', The Times (online, 10 November 2016) <http://www.times.co.uk/article/unpaid-work-a-crucial-pillar-of-justice-rnx5rd6fs>
 

 

Internet Material

The details required in order are: Author (if indicated on the webpage being cited); Document Title (in single quotation marks); Web Page Title (in italics); Document Type, Full Date (in round brackets); URL (enclosed in < >). A source should be cited as internet material if it does not exist in a published form and/or there is no other AGLC rule that would apply.

Tips:

  • Where the author and webpage title are the same, omit author
  • If the document type (eg Blog Post) is not obvious 'Web Page' should be used
  • Where available the full date of the last update of the web page should be included after the document name. If not available, the full date of creation should be included. Where there is no full date, include as much as appears. Omit date if none is shown.

Example: Rebecca Park, 'Changes to Powers of Attorney in Victoria', Law Institute of Victoria (Web Page, 17 May 2017) <https://www.liv.asn.au/Staying-Informed/General-News/General-News/May-2017/Changes-to-Powers-of-Attorney-in-Victoria>.

 
  FOOTNOTE CITATION EXAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLE

Blog Post

26 Cherly Saunders, 'Reflections on the Local Government Referendum that Wasn't', Opinions on High (Blog Post, 23 September 2013) <https://blogs.unimelb.edu.au/opinionsonhigh/ 2013/09/23/saunders-local-government-referendum/>. Saunders, Cheryl, 'Reflections on the Local Government Referendum that Wasn't, Opinions on High (Blog Post, 23 September 2013) <https://blogs.unimelb.edu.au/opinionsonhigh/ 2013/09/23/saunders-local-government-referendum/>

Web Page

27 'About VCAT', Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (Web Page) <https://vcat.vic.gov.au/about-vcat>.

'About VCAT', Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (Web Page) <https://vcat.vic.gov.au/about-vcat>

 

 

 

Case Law

REPORTED (LAW REPORT)

The details required in order are: Case Name (in italics); Year (in round brackets); Volume Number; Law Report Series (abbreviation); Starting Page Number; Pinpoint page number where appropriate (used when referring to a specific point in the judgment); Name of Judge/s (only used where appropriate).

Example: Kartinyeri v Commonwealth (1998) 195 CLR 337, 383 (Gummow and Hayne JJ).

 

  FOOTNOTE CITATION EXAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCE LIST            EXAMPLE                                                                                                          

 

Reported   Law  Report

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26 Chamberlain v The Queen [No 2] (1984) 153 CLR 521, 529.

 27 Commonwealth v Tasmania (1983) 158 CLR 521 ('Tasmanian Dam Case').

  28 Dale v Scott; Ex parte Dale [1985] 1 Qd R 406, 408.

29 DPP (Vic) v Finn (2008) 186 A Crim R 235.

30 Momentum Productions Pty Ltd v Lewarne (2009) 254 ALR 223.

31 R v Reid [1977] VR 430, 433-4.

 

Case name should NOT be included in a footnote citation                                   if it appears in   the sentence accompanying the footnote.                                 For example -
In your text: In News Corporation v Lenfest Communications Inc,129 the Court        had to consider the effect…

In the footnote:
 129
 (1996) 21 ACSR 553.

Chamberlain v The Queen [No 2] (1984) 153  CLR   521

Commonwealth v Tasmania (1983) 158 CLR 1

Dale v Scott; Ex parte Dale [1985] 1 Qd R 406

DPP (Vic) v Finn (2008) 186 A Crim R 235

Momentum Productions Pty Ltd v Lewarne (2009) 254 ALR 223

R v Reid [1977] VR 430                         

 

                                                                                                                                   

          

 

 

UNREPORTED (WITH MEDIUM NEUTRAL CITATION)

The details required in order are: Case Name (in italics); Year (in square brackets); Abbreviation for the CourtJudgement Number (allocated by the court); Pinpoint reference to paragraph (in square brackets) where appropriate.

 

UNREPORTED (WITHOUT A MEDIUM NEUTRAL CITATION)

The details required in order are: Case Name (in italics); CourtJudgeFull Date; Pinpoint reference to page where appropriate.

 

  FOOTNOTE CITATION EXAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLE
Unreported  
with
Medium
Neutral 
Citation

32 Murray v The Queen [2002] HCA 26 [54]-[55].

33 R v De Gruchy [2006] VSCA 10 [4].

Murray v The Queen [2002] HCA 26

R v De Gruchy [2006] VSCA 10

 
Unreported
without
Medium
Neutral 
Citation

 

 

34 Ross v Chambers (Supreme Court of Northern Territory,                     Kriewaldt J, 5 April 1956) 77.

 

 

Ross v Chambers (Supreme Court of Northern Territory, Kriewaldt J, 5 April 1956)

Tip: A case should generally not be cited as unreported if it has been reported

 

Todorovic v Waller (1981) 150 CLR 402                                                                                                                                                                                  For round bracket ( ) citations, the year is not essential for locating the case.

Macpherson v Kevin J Prunty & Associates [1983] 1 VR 573 
For square bracket [ ] citations, the year is essential as the report series either does not have a volume number or, as in this instance, begins with volume 1 each year.

Watts v Turpin [2000] Aust Torts Reports 81-544
Cases published by CCH have a slightly different citation style. Numbers such as 81-544 as shown above are references to paragraphs.  These numbers are displayed at the bottom of the page in CCH reports.  Numbers that do not include a hyphen are references to page numbers.  These numbers are displayed at the top of the page in CCH reports. 

McCracken v Melbourne Storm Rugby League Football Club [2005] NSWSC 107
This citation is a medium neutral citation.  This method of citation was developed to accommodate referencing unreported judgments. In the example above, 2005 is the year that the case was decided, NSWSC stands for the New South Wales Supreme Court; 107 is the number of the case. NSWSC stands for the New South Wales Supreme Court; 107 is the number of the case assigned by the Court.

Legislation

The details required in order are: Short Title Year (in italics); Jurisdiction abbreviation (in round brackets);  Pinpoint to section(s), regulation(s), rule(s) etc (an abbreviation and number(s)) if applicable.

 

Example: Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) s 76.

  FOOTNOTE CITATION EXAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLE

Act/Statute  

Regulation

35 Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) s 1.
36 Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) s 178.
37 National Parks and Wildlife Regulation 2009 (NSW) reg 6.

38 Supreme Court (General Civil Procedure) Rules 2015 (Vic)         r 13.01.

 Crimes Act 1958 (Vic)
 Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth)
 National Parks and Wildlife Regulation 2009 (NSW)

 Supreme Court (General Civil Procedure) Rules 2015 (Vic)

 

Bill 39 Interactive Gambling Bill 2001 (Cth). Interactive Gambling Bill 2001 (Cth)
 

Explanatory    Memorandum

40 Explanatory Memorandum, Corporate Law Reform Bill 1992 (Cth). Explanatory Memorandum, Corporate Law Reform Bill 1992 (Cth)

Research Paper, Thesis or Similar Document

 The details required in order are: Author; Title (in single quotation marks); Document Type/Series Document Number, Institution/Forum, Full Date (in parentheses);  Pinpoint if applicable. A URL may be included after the first reference to a source if it would aid in its retrieval.

Example: Grania Sheehan and Jody Hughes, 'Division of Matrimonial Property in Australia' (Research Paper No 25, Australian Institute of Family Studies, March 2001).

 
  FOOTNOTE CITATION EXAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLE
Discussion Paper 26 Productivity Commission (Cth), 'Increasing Australia's Future Prosperity' (Discussion Paper, November 2016) 5. Productivity Commission (Cth), 'Increasing Australia's Future Prosperity' (Discussion Paper, November 2016)
Working Paper 27 Anna Chapman, 'Australian Anti-Discrimination Law, Work, Care and Family' (Working Paper No 51, Centre for Employment and Labour Relations, The University of Melbourne, January 2012) 18.                                                                            Chapman, Anna, 'Australian anti-Discrimination Law, Work, Care and Family' (Working Paper No 51, Centre for Employment and Labour Relations, The University of Melbourne, January 2012)
Thesis 28 Kumudini Heenetigala, 'Corporate Governance Practices and Firm Performance of Listed Companies in Sri Lanka (PhD Thesis, Victoria University, 2011). Heenetigala, Kumudini, 'Corporate Governance Practices and Firm Performance of Listed Companies in Sri Lanka (PhD Thesis, Victoria University, 2011)
Conference Paper 29 Diana Bryant, 'The Family Courts and Family Violence' (Conference Paper, Judicial Conference of Australia, 10 October 2015. Bryant, Diana, 'The Family Courts and Family Violence' (Conference Paper, Judicial Conference of Australia, 10 October 2015) 
Speech 30 Robert French, 'Ethics and Public Office' (Speech, Sir Zelman Cowen Memorial Oration, Monash University, 10 September 2015). French, Robert, 'Ethics and Public Office' (Speech, Sir Zelman Cowen Memorial Oration, Monash University, 10 September 2015)

 

Parliamentary Material

 
  FOOTNOTE CITATION EXAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLE
Hansard 26 Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, Senate, 18 June 2008, 2642-4 (Bob Brown).                                                                                Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, Senate, 18 June 2008
Committee Report  27 Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Parliament of Victoria, Inquiry into the Crimes Amendment (Unlicensed Drivers) Bill 2018 (Report, September 2018) 5. Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Parliament of Victoria, Inquiry into the Crimes Amendment (Unlicensed Drivers) Bill 2018 (Report, September 2018)
Bills Digest        28 Department of Parliamentary Services (Cth), Bills Digest (Digest No 23 of 2010-11, 20 October 2010) 10. Department of Parliamentary Services (Cth), Bills Digest (Digest No 23 of 2010-11, 20 October 2010)
Submission    to Government / Parliamentary Inquiry 29 Law Institute of Victoria, Submission No 78 to House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Parliament of Australia, Inquiry into Older People and the Law (13 December 2006). Law Institute of Victoria, Submission No 78 to House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Parliament of Australia, Inquiry into Older People and the Law (13 December 2006)
 

 

Legal Encyclopedia / Loose Leaf Service

Legal Encyclopedia - Online

The details required in order are: - Publisher, Title of Encyclopedia (in italics); online and date of retrieval (in parentheses); Title Number, Name of Title, Chapter Number Name of Chapter (in single quotation marks); Pinpoint (to paragraph number in square brackets) .

 

Example: LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia (online at 20 November 2018) 250 Legal Practitioners, '4 Lawyers' Duty to the Court'  [250-5000].

 

Legal Encyclopedia - Print

If citing a print version of a legal encyclopedia a volume number should be included along with the date of the last update to chapter (not date of retrieval).

 

  FOOTNOTE CITATION EXAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLE
Legal Encyclopedia (Online) 23 Westlaw AULaws of Australia (online at 21 November  2018) 33 Torts, '33.2 Negligence' [33.2.210]. Westlaw AULaws of Australia (online at 21 November  2018) 33 Torts, '33.2 Negligence'
 

Legal Encyclopedia (Print)

24 LexisNexis, Halsbury's Law of Australia, vol 5 (at 25 May 2009) 235 Insurance, '2 General Principles' [235-270].

LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia, vol 5 (at 25 May 2009) 235 Insurance, '2 General Principles'

Looseleaf Service - Online

The details required in order are: Publisher; Title (in italics); online at Date of Retrieval (in parentheses); Pinpoint (to paragraph in square brackets].

 

Looseleaf Service - Print

If citing a print version of a loose leaf service a volume number should be included along with the most recent Service Update for the pinpoint, or the full date.

              FOOTNOTE CITATION EXAMPLE  BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLE

Looseleaf Service  (Online)  

25 Westlaw AU, Indictable Offences in Victoria (online at 10 November 2018) [23.90].                       Westlaw AU, Indictable Offences in Victoria (online at 10 November 2018) 
 

Looseleaf Service      (Print)

 

26 Marcus Jacobs, Thomson Reuters, International Commercial Arbitration in Australia: Law and Practice, vol 1 (at Release 5) [3.230].

Marcus Jacobs, Thomson Reuters, International Commercial Arbitration in Australia: Law and Practice, vol 1 (at Release 5)

 Tip: Where an author of a loose leaf service is clearly identified, include the authors name before the publisher (separated by a comma).

Repeated Citation - General Rule

When citing a source that has previously been cited (other than the immediately preceding footnote) a shortened form of the citation may be provided with a cross-reference (in parentheses) to the footnote number in which the citation was shown in full. 

  • For secondary sources the citation would generally be - Author(s) Surname(s) (n Footnote Number) Pinpoint.
  • For cases, legislation and treaties the citation would generally be - Short Title (n Footnote Number) Pinpoint

Book 
1 Catherine MacMillan, Mistakes in Contract Law (Hart Publishing, 2010) 38. 
2 N C Seddon and M P Ellinghaus, Cheshire and Fifoot’s Law of Contract (LexisNexis, 9th ed, 2008) 867.
3 Des Butler, Contract Law (LexisNexis, 4th ed, 2012) 38.


Journal Article 
4 James Allsop, ‘Good Faith and Australian Contract Law: A Practical Issue and a Question of Theory and Principle’ (2011) 85(6) Australian Law Review 341, 352. 
5 Des Butler,  ‘Breach of Contract and Contributory Negligence: a Protracted Debate Finally Resolved’ (2000) 28(2) Australian Business Law Review 132, 135.
...
Multiple Sources in Footnote 
7 J W Carter, Carter’s Guide to Australian Contract Law (LexisNexis, 2nd ed, 2011) 521; Peter Radan and John Gooley, Principles of Australian Contract Law (LexisNexis, 2nd ed, 2010) 489. 
8 Radan and Gooley (n 7). 

Case
9 Byrne v Australian Airlines Ltd (1995) 185 CLR 410 ('Byrne').

Legislation
10 Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic) ('CHRR Act').
Treaty
11 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, opened for signature 11 April 1980, 1489 UNTS 58 (entered into force 1 January 1988) ('CISG').
...

14 Seddon and Ellinghaus (n 2) 869. 
15 MacMillan ( n 1). 
16 Allsop (n 4) 353-4.
17 Butler, 'Breach of Contract and Contributory Negligence' (n 5) 134.
18 Byrne (n 9) 461 (McHugh, Gummow JJ).
19 CHRR Act (n 10) s 24.
20 CISG (n 11) art 30.

 

Tips: Include the title (shortened) where there are multiple works by the same author. Where there are works by authors with the same surname, the authors full name should be included to avoid ambiguity.                                                                                                                                                    Subsequent references to United Nations and WTO Documents should be cited in accordance with AGLC rule 9.5 and 13.5

Repeated Citation - Ibid

Ibid should be used to refer to the source in the immediately preceding footnote, including pinpoints

  • Should NOT be used if the immediately preceding footnote contains more than one source
  • May be used for any type of source eg book, case, legislation
     

Book
 1 D Khoury and Y Yamouni, Understanding Contract Law (LexisNexis, 7th ed, 2007) 56.

 2 Ibid.
 
Legislation
 8 Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) s 38.

 9 Ibid s 38(2).
  
Case
 15 Chamberlain v The Queen (1984) 153 CLR 521, 525.

 16 Ibid 526.
 

Bibliography

A bibliography lists all the sources that you have relied upon in preparing your assignment. It would include those sources referred to in your text and footnotes plus any others.

A bibliography is generally divided into the sections shown below. If not all are required, a section may be omitted with appropriate renumbering.

A Articles/Books/Reports 
B Case Law
C Legislation
D Treaties
E Other

 

In the bibliography:

  • The author's first name and surname should be inverted and separated by a comma. If there is more than one author, only the first authors name is inverted
  • Sources should be listed in alphabetical order under each heading
  • Where more than one work by an author is cited, the works should be listed in chronological order
  • A full stop is not required at the end of the citation
  • Pinpoint reference(s) should not be included

 

SAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Articles/Books/Reports

Bailey, David, ‘Reforming Civil Procedure in Victoria: Two Steps Forward and One Step Back?’ (2011) 1(1) Dictum 81

Francis, Angus and Neil Andrews, 'Insolvency Law in Taiwan: The Interplay between Official and Unofficial Law' in Roman Tomasic (ed), Insolvency Law in East Asia (Ashgate, 2006)

French, Robert, ‘The Role of the High Court in the Recognition of Native Title’ (2002) 30(2) University of Western Australia Law Review 129

Graw, Stephen, An Introduction to the Law of Contract (Thomson Reuters, 9th ed, 2017)

Sheehan, Grania and Jody Hughes, 'Division of Matrimonial Property in Australia' (Research Paper No 25, Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2001)

Victorian Law Reform Commission, Civil Justice Review (Report No 14, March 2008)

 

B Cases

Chamberlain v The Queen (1984) 153 CLR 521

Frontier Dispute (Benin v Niger) (Judgment) [2005] ICJ Rep 90

Lane v Morrison [2009] HCA 29

C Legislation

Australian Constitution

Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth)

Crimes Act 1958 (Vic)

D Treaties

Convention on the International Recovery of Child Support and Other Forms of Family Maintenance, opened for signature 23 November 2007, 47 ILM 257 (not yet in force)

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, opened for signature 28 July 1951, 189 UNTS 150 (entered into force 22 April 1954)

 E Other

New South Wales, Parliamentary Debates, Legislative Assembly, 15 December 1990

 

Sources Referring to Other Sources

The original of all sources used should be consulted and cited. However, it may be important to indicate where one source has referred to another. Phrases such as 'quoting' or 'quoted in', 'cited' or 'cited in' may be used. See examples below - other phrases could be used depending on the context.

    FOOTNOTE CITATION EXAMPLE
Quoting The first listed source directly quotes the second source. Mabo v Queensland [No 2] (1992) 175 CLR 1, 26, quoting Attorney-General (NSW) v Brown (1847) 1 Legge 312, 317-8. 
Quoted In The first listed source is quoted directly in the second source Attorney-General (NSW) v Brown (1847) 1 Legge 312, 317-8, quoted in Mabo v Queensland [No 2] (1992) 175 CLR 1, 26.
Citing  The first listed source refers to the second source  Bennett v Commonwealth (2007) 231 CLR 91, 106, citing Lamshed v Lake (1958) 99 CLR 132, 153.
Cited In  The first listed source is referred to in the second source  Lamshed v Lake (1958) 99 CLR 132, 153 cited in Bennett v Commonwealth (2007) 231 CLR 91, 106.
 
Discussed The first listed source discussed the second source Adrienne Stone, 'Comparativism in Constitutional Interpretation' [2009] New Zealand Review 45, 59, discussed Airlines of New South Wales Pty Ltd v New South Wales [No 2] (1965) 113 CLR 54, 113-15.
Discussed In The first listed source is discussed in the second source Airlines of New South Wales Pty Ltd v New South Wales [No 2] (1965) 113 CLR 54, 113-15, discussed in Adrienne Stone, 'Comparativism in Constitutional Interpretation' [2009] New Zealand Law Review 45, 59.